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Ancient Egypt

World History, Ms. Noles

caroline doherty

on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt
The Timeline of Ancient Egypt
The 8 Aspects of a Civilization
Did you Know....
Traditionally, the pharaoh's wife was his sister. If he did not have a sister, the woman he chose to marry was said to be his sister so as not to upset tradition.
By: Miracle, Terrence, Isaac, and Caroline
3500 BCE
Settlers first arrived in the Nile Valley and started to grow a civilization.
3100 BCE
Hieroglyphics were developed and used by scribes to communicate and decorate.
2700 BCE
The first stone pyramids were built in Saqqara, which was an ancient burial ground for the Egyptians. Used as a necropolis for Egypt's ancient capital, Memphis.
By: Terrence, Miracle, Isaac, and Caroline
2600 BCE
The Pyramids of Giza were built as a royal necropolis by the second Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty, Khufu. Pharaohs Khufu and Khafra are buried there. The largest of the three pyramids is made up of 2.3 million stone bricks, each weighing about 8.5 tons.
320 BCE
Alexander the Great of Macedonia conquers Egypt and installs a new dynasty that rules for 300 years.
30 BCE
Queen Cleopatra commits suicide by arranging for an asp to be brought to her in a fig basket. The asp bites her in the chest, she dies, and Rome takes over Egypt.
1400 BCE
Tutankhamen becomes pharaoh of Egypt. He restored the traditional religion that had been dismissed by the pharaoh before him, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen's father. He became pharaoh at age nine and died at age nineteen. The cause of Tutankhamen's death is unknown.
The first known farming community was located at a floodplain of the Nile Delta at Merimda Beni Salama. This community had a population of about 1,200 and was 180,000 square meters. There was no evidence of a hierarchy system but there is evidence of public works and art. This city remained functioning for about 1,000 years.
Ancient Egypt had a theocratic government. The pharaoh not only controlled the city and population, but also the religion. The pharaoh had many people to carry out his decrees, including viziers, army commanders, chief treasurers, the minister of public works, and tax collectors. Laws mostly dictated the distribution of the best punishment for a crime.
Social Structure
Social rankings were based on the community's perception of the value and need of a person's skill. For example, soldiers were ranked higher than craftsmen because protection was valued more than art and material things.
Arts and Architecture
The after-life was an important part of ancient egyptian culture. The people mummified the dead and did their best to preserve them in preparation for the after-life. This is considered an art because it is specific to Egyptian culture and represents it's belief system. Egypt is very popular for it's art and architecture. Art was used to show off wealth to visitors and display historic scenes and beauty. Architecture was used to honor gods and pharaohs. It was also used to produce the perfect burial place for dead pharaohs.
The Egyptians practiced the worship of more than 2,000 gods and goddesses. Some deities were specific to certain regions while others were worshiped throughout the country. The pharaohs were the leaders of religion and acted as a gateway to the gods for the people. The priests were the only ones allowed in the temple and their only responsibility was to take care of the gods and goddesses. He made sure all of the needs of the gods were taken care of everyday. He did not educate the people or lead any form of worship for the people. His job was very important because if the gods were dissatisfied, then problems would appear.
Public Works
Job Specialization
Ancient Egypt predominately used hieroglyphics as their form of writing, although there are a lot of other ancient egyptian scripts that were in use such as hieratic and sekh shat script. Script was used because people thought it was important to record information about government and religion. Scripts were also used to communicate to other people and to the gods.
The artisans of ancient Egypt included Carpenters, Metal-workers, Jewelers, Painters, Sculptors, Potters, Stone carvers, and Weavers. Craftsmen were not allowed to sign their work and were not very high on the social pyramid. They usually lead a comfortable life though. They were not valued as highly as one might think because of the great number of them. The more important a job, the less number of people there will be performing it.
Public works in ancient Egypt included digging canals, building palaces, tombs, monuments, and pyramids. Public works also included roads and maintenance of roads. Although most people used the Nile to travel, sometimes that was not adequate. Egyptians built dirt roads and would have to repair them after every flood from the Nile.
1) Who was Ahkenaten's son?
King Tutankhamen
2) Where did the asp bite Cleopatra?
Her chest
3) What was Saqqara used for?
A burial ground
4) Who was ranked just above the slaves on the social pyramid of ancient Egypt?
The Artisans and Craftsmen
5) How long did the first ancient Egyptian farming community last?
1,000 years
6) Was ancient Egypt polytheistic or monotheistic?
7) Where was the the first community located?
8) Was the afterlife for important egyptian culture?
9) Who were the only ones that were allowed in temples?
10) What form of writing did egyptians use?

By the Nile's delta
Yes, it was the basis of their burial process and concerned them greatly. They would bury a pharaoh with treasures and servants to help him during the afterlife.
Hieroglyphics, sekh shat, and hieratic writing
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"Egyptian Social Structure." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2014. <http://www.ushistory.org/civ/3b.asp>.
"Job Specialization - Ancient Egyptopedia." Job Specialization - Ancient Egyptopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2014. <https://sites.google.com/site/ancientegyptopedia/social-structure/job-specialization>
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