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Single Replacement Reactions
Transcript of Single Replacement Reactions
Making Gold Pennies
Single Replacement Reaction:
A single-replacement reaction, also named single-displacement reaction, is a type of oxidation-reduction chemical reaction when an element or ion moves out of one compound and into another - that is, one element is replaced by another in a compound.
How to Identify The Reaction
A single replacement reaction can be identified when an element trades places with another element in a compound.
Product Formation Rules
In ancient China, copper was first isolated around 475 BCE. Two hundred years later, methods of producing copper were further advanced. One of the methods included using iron to replace copper from copper sulfate solutions.
Most hot water heater tanks are made from steel, which can corrode in the presence of oxygen and water. Each iron atom loses two electrons, which forms iron (II) hydroxide. A more reactive metal, such as magnesium or zinc, can sacrifice itself by giving iron its electrons and forming magnesium hydroxide (magnesium corrodes instead of iron).
Concrete pillars have iron rebar in them for strength. However, salt water can quickly react with the iron to form iron (II) chloride. To prevent this, a metal like zinc or magnesium is attached to the rebar and will protect the iron.
Even More Examples...
In Class Example
Sodium Hydroxide (24g)
100ml of Distilled Water
Copper Coins (pre-1982)
Crucible and Patri Dish
A+BX --> AX+B
The reaction can only occur if B is less reactive than A.
A and B must be different metal types, where X is an anion, or both A and B must be halogens, while X is a cation.
Polish a copper coin with steel wool.
Dissolve 24g of sodium hydroxide in 100ml of distilled water in your beaker. The solution will become warm and corrosive.
Heat the solution in a patri dish over a bunsen burner to its boiling point.
Add 5g of zinc to the solution after turning off the bunsen burner.
Zn(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 2H2O(I) --> Na2[An(OH)4](aq) + H2(g)
In the copper and silver nitrate reaction, copper is changed from its regular element form to a blue aqueous ion form. The silver ions in silver nitrate will be changed to their elemental metallic form and deposited onto the coin. The silver on the coin continues to grow off like crystals until all of the reactable copper in the solution is exhausted, leaving the end products of silver nitrate.
Drop the clean penny into the hot solution of sodium zincate.
Stir the penny around in the solution with a stirring rod so it makes contact with the zinc.
Leave the coin in the solution for roughly two minutes.
Remove the coin with tongues and rinse it under running water.
Dry the coin and remove excess plating with a paper towel to reveal the new 'silver' appearance.
CuO + H2SO4 --> CuSO4 + H2O
Fe(OH)2 + Mg → Mg(OH)2 + Fe
Zn + FeCl2 → Fe + ZnCl2
Re-light the bunsen burner.
Using tongues or forceps, evenly heat both sides of the "silver" penny. A golden shimmer should immediately become evident.