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Transcript of classical timeline
1572 Catherine De'Medici
-Born 1519, Florence, Italy
-She took ballet to France into the courts, when she married the king of France and invested her money into these ballets.
-king louis XIII loved dance so he put himself into the ballets.
- turnout came from this court dancing, as they had jewels on th insides of the shoes, as they wanted to show their wealth they turned their feet out so the jewels could be seen by the audience.
- The most successful ballet she invested in was La paradise Demour
1617 King Louis XIII
known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King.
The reigns of King Louis XIII encompass the Baroque Period, a time of extraordinary development in French culture along with peasant riots and revolts lasting through much of the century.
- A form created by Louis the XIII, who had little interest in dramatically related themes, but instead preferred segment upon segment of artfull costumes and masks, pantomimes, and acrobatics.
1727-1810 Jean Georges Noverre
He was a ballet master known as "The Shakespeare of the Ballet." His influence on the art gives him the title "The Grandfather of the Ballet" as we know it today. In 1754 he produced his first ballet and in 1760 published his book, "Letters on the Dance." after traveling the world to get an understanding of how ballet was progressing around the world.
2nd letter 1760:
"Ballet is a living picture and should encompass everything."
"Speak to the soul through the eyes"
He wanted the dancers to get rid of the mascarade masks and let themselves be more like actors and use their faces to tell the stories in these ballets.
4th letter :
"you cant become a ballet master without experience."
"apply yourself so ballet becoms a poem, write it down, read them over 100 times divide it into scenes, let it be interesteing"
this si where the Acts in ballet performances come from.
1805 - 1979 August Bournonville
1820-1864 Carlo Blasis
Ballet steps today are named with french words as it was codified in france by Carlo Blasis, this is when the vocab was made as Carlo Blasis published an analysis of the classic ballet technique in his Traité élémentaire, théorique, et pratique de l’art de la danse (1820; An Elementary Treatise upon the Theory and Practice of the Art of Dancing).
The codification became definite when they began creating ballets especially for performance and for an audience to come and watch.
1818-1910 Marius Petipa
Marius Petipa was born in 1818 in Marseille, France. He began training, at the age of seven, with his brother from their father Jean Petipa. His Brother Lucien ended up as a dancer and ballet master at the Paris Opera.
The family moved to Brussels where Petipa attended the Grand College and also studied music at the conservatoire.
He appeared in his father's La Dansomanie n 1831.
In 1838 Petipa became a principal dancer at the theatre in Nantes, France where he also staged opera dances for the theatre.
Petipa moved to America with his father while recovering from a broken leg. While in the United States Petipa performed La Tarentule at the National Theatre on Broadway.
- Petipa returned to Paris where he danced at the Comédie Française then at the Paris Opera.
-Petipa went to Bordeaux for a year in 1842 then to Madrid for four years. In Madrid
Petipa learned Spanish dance which would come through in the Spanish dances he choreographed for ballets in Russia.
- In 1847 Petipa was engaged to dance at the Imperial Theatre, (also known as the Mariinsky Theatre), in St. Petersburg, Russia.
- Petipa's first choreography in Russia occurred in 1949 for Flotow's opera Alessandro Stradella in Moscow.
-Petipa married another dancer, Marie Scurvshikova, in 1854, the same year he became an instructor at the Imperial Ballet School in St. Petersburg.
-1857 Marius and Marie had a daughter together, also named Marie.
-Petipa choreographed his first original ballet in Russia, Un mariage sous régence, for his wife in 1858.
- In 1869 Petipa was made the Premier Ballet Master of the Imperial Theatre.
-1869 he and Maria were divorced.
-Petipa brought the French and Italian traditions to Russia.
-In 1881 when Ivan Vsevolojsky was appointed Director of the Imperial Theatres. His patronage led to the creation of the three great Petipa/Tchaikovsky masterpieces: 1890 The Sleeping Beauty, 1892 The Nutcracker, and 1895 Swan Lake. These ballets are definitely the most popular ballets in existence.
Marius Petipa retired in 1903 and was barred from the Imperial Theatres that had been his home for fifty-six years. He wrote his memoirs which were published in 1906 and died an unhappy man in the Ukraine in 1910.
Ballet Russes 1909-1929
-1901 Diaghilev bought a company of russias finest damcers to feature in fokine's choreography: Ana Pavelova, Karsivina, Nijinsky and Bolm, this lead to the ballet Russes being formed.
-the company left Russia to tour Europe and America for 18years.
-The company featured and premiered works that are now famous by the great choreographers Marius Petipa, Michel Fokine, Bronislava Nijinska, Leonide Massine, Vaslav Nijinsky, and George Balanchine at the start of his career.
-George Balanchine became a member of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes as a dancer and began to choreograph for the company in the 1920s. Today, Balanchine one of the principal artists of modern times and the founder of classical ballet in America.
1909 Vaslav Nijinsky and his sister Bronislava Nijinska join Diaghilev's Ballets Russes as dancers.
Paris critics claim that Diaghilev produces well-danced ballets with exotic décors and costumes, but with no comparable innovative music component. this is when he turned to the young composer Igor Stravinsky.
Other ballets produced during 1910 included: Le Carnaval; Schéhérazade; Giselle; and Les Orientales.
1920 Marie rambet
During Ballets Russes tour to South America, Vaslav Nijinsky married Romola de Pulszky. Diaghilev dismisses Nijinsky from the company in late 1913.
Léonide Massine is named chief choreographer for the Ballets Russes, a position he held until 1920.
1916 The Ballets Russes begins a tour of the United States in January under the direction of Vaslav Nijinsky, who had returned to the company.
1917 Pablo Picasso designs the sets, costumes, and curtain for Parade, his first ballet for Diaghilev. Picasso creates designs for five Ballets Russes productions between 1917 and 1924 as well as drawings for programs.
Due to the Russian Revolution of 1917, Diaghilev faces increasing difficulty in obtaining financial support for the Ballets Russes.
1921 November, the Ballets Russes premiered a full-length version of The Sleeping Princess, based on the well-known ballet The Sleeping Beauty at the Alhambra Theatre, London.
1924- George Balanchine joined Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes as a dancer.
1929 Serge Diaghilev died on 19 August in Venice.
He set up the royal danish ballet and was in charge of the company for 20years. he choreographed the ballet Romeo and Juliet and now owns the choreography for it.
his choreography has a very specific style:
he eliminates pas de bras so the focus is more on the footwork.
He uses lots of epaulement
there is a certain step called the Bournonville jetê - A leap where the front leg brushes straight into the air while the back leg is in attitude. (see image 1)
1836 Bournonville created his version of the romantic ballet 'las sylphide' with the royal Danish Ballet. (image 2)
Other Royal Danish ballets: 1842-Napoli. 1849-Le Conervatoine. 1851-The Kermesse in Bruges. 1854-A Folk Tale. 1855-Abdallah. 1856-La Ventana. 1858-The Flower Festival In Genzano. 1860-Far From Denmark. 1871-The Kings Voulenteers on Amager.
He studied at the Paris opera and worked his way up to become a Ballet Master. he then helped to build the Imperial Royal Academy of Dance in Italy, this school was redound for its technique where a student Sophia Fuoco gained fame for her pointe work.
He decided the structure of a ballet class today from barre to grande allegro.
He is most known for the pose "Attitude" derived from the famous statue Mercury by Giovanni da Bologna
Enrico Cecchetti expanded his method of instruction and theories.
(image to the left an extract from his book)
Marie Rambert; originally known as Miriam Ramburg, was born in Warsaw, Poland in 1888. She is the founder of Rambert Dance Company. Isadora Duncan gave her the inspiration to dance after Marie watched her perform in 1904.
In 1912 Serge Diaghilev invited her to assist Vaslav Nijinsky and his dancers with Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of
Spring), which was being choreographed for Ballet
She worked with the Ballets Russes for a season from 1912-1914
1920 she opened her school and called it 'Marie Rambert Dancers'.
1931 she changed the schools name to 'The Ballet Club' then in 1935 it changed again to 'Ballet Rambert'. the company then became 'Rambert Dance' company in 1987.
her talent was spotting strengths and weaknesses in dancers and advised them where to go with their careers.
1923 Ninette de Valois
Ninette de Valois, Born, 1898 County Wicklow
1923 she joined Ballet Russes as a soloist
In 1926 she founded her own school, the Academy of Choreographic Art, in London.
1931 she opened Old Vic theatre with the help of Lillion Baylis. which lead to the Vic-Wells Ballet company forming in 1931, this company then became the Saddlers Wells Ballet after moving venue.
At age 26, she stopped performing after realising she was suffering from an undiagnosed case of childhood polio.
October 1956 she formed the Royal Ballet.
1924 George Balanchine
Born 1904 St Petersburg
graduated in 1921, from the Imperial Ballet School
1914 Balanchine performed at the age of 10 as a cupid in The Sleeping Beauty by the Maryinsky Theatre Ballet Company.
1924 he officially joined ballet Russes and within 1 year he became head choreographer.
1933 he was invited to America by Lincoln Kirstein with the intentions of setting up a ballet school. one year later he set up the 'school of American Ballet.
serenade was the first ballet created in the company.
1946 he started NYC Ballet originally called Ballet Society.
his ballets were very stripped back of the grand elements in terms of costume scenery and backdrops.
his music was created by Stravinsky and Tchaikovsky
his rep is refereed to now as neo classical.