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William Butler Yeats
Transcript of William Butler Yeats
William Butler Yeats (1865-1939) was born in Dublin. His father was a lawyer and a well-known portrait painter. Yeats was educated in London and in Dublin, but he spent his summers in the west of Ireland in the family's summer house at Connaught.
William Butler Yeats was third-generation Irish. From day one he was up against a wall regarding his religious beliefs, for his grandfather was a deeply Orthodox Rector in the Church of England, while his father was a complete religious skeptic. With this conflict already in place, young William walked the very fine line of between faith and disbelief.
The young Yeats was active in societies that attempted an Irish literary revival. His first volume of verse appeared in 1887, but in his earlier period his dramatic production outweighed his poetry both in bulk and in import.
Together with Lady Gregory he founded the Irish Theatre, which was to become the Abbey Theatre, and served as its chief playwright until the movement was joined by John Synge. His plays usually treat Irish legends; they also reflect his fascination with mysticism and spiritualism. The Countess Cathleen (1892), The Land of Heart's Desire (1894), Cathleen ni Houlihan (1902), The King's Threshold (1904), and Deirdre(1907) are among the best known.
After 1910, Yeats's dramatic art took a sharp turn toward a highly poetical, static, and esoteric style. His later plays were written for small audiences; they experiment with masks, dance, and music, and were profoundly influenced by the Japanese Noh plays.
Although a convinced patriot, Yeats deplored the hatred and the bigotry of the Nationalist movement, and his poetry is full of moving protests against it. He was appointed to the Irish Senate in 1922. Yeats is one of the few writers whose greatest works were written after the award of the Nobel Prize.
Whereas he received the Prize chiefly for his dramatic works, his significance today rests on his lyric achievement. His poetry, especially the volumes The Wild Swans at Coole (1919), Michael Robartes and the Dancer (1921), The Tower (1928), The Winding Stair and Other Poems(1933), and Last Poems and Plays (1940), made him one of the outstanding and most influential twentieth-century poets writing in English.
His poetry and writings were a display of his passion for mysticism and the Occult Sciences.
His recurrent themes are the contrast of art and life, masks, cyclical theories of life (the symbol of the winding stairs), and the ideal of beauty and ceremony contrasting with the hubbub of modern life.
William Butler Yeats died of old age on January 28, 1939.
The word occult has its root in the Latin word occultus, meaning clandestine, hidden, or secret, and refers to the 'knowledge of the hidden'. This term is also popularly taken to mean 'knowledge meant only for certain people' or 'knowledge that must be kept hidden'. For centuries, this knowledge was deemed too dangerous to be shared with the masses, so it was kept hidden from them underneath layers of superstitions, half truths and whole lies by those who were afraid of it or those who had much to gain by keeping it to themselves.
"Noh"from theJapanese word for "skill" or "talent" - is a major form of classical Japanese musical drama. Many characters are masked, with men playing male and female roles. Traditionally, a Noh "performance day" lasts all day and consists of five Noh plays interspersed with shorter, humorous pieces.
Yeats with friends
Occultism is the study of occult or hidden wisdom. To the occultist it is the study of "Truth", a deeper truth that exists beneath the surface: 'The truth is always hidden in plain sight'. It can involve such subjects as magic, extra-sensory perception, astrology, spiritualism, numerology and lucid dreaming.
Irish poet and playwright