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Project 4: Project Management
Transcript of Project 4: Project Management
Project Management Philosophies
If we care about projects, then we must first care for the perspective/philosophy from which projects are seen and analyzed in academia and manged in practice. (Muller & Konstantinou, 2015) This presentation will help you understand the different philosophies and how they can essentially provide your project the best results possible.
Effectiveness of Philosophies
As we find with anything, it is difficult to decide which methodology will work best for a project. There will always be people who debate which one works best or which one is most effective. However, in the end if we research, compare and select one that we are not only most familiar with but also one that your team has been successful in using you are likely to be successful in your project completion.
There are many different philosophies for project management. Taking the time to understand which philosophy is best for your company is essential. We will be discussing and comparing some popular philosophies listed below.
Theory of Constraints
Total Quality Management
Six Sigma is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. It was developed by Motorola in 1986. Jack Welch made it central to his business strategy at General Electric in 1995. (Wikipedia, 2015) As we know, it is now used widely in many different industries.
Six Sigma is used to improve the quality of process within businesses. This can improve processes by identifying and removing errors and minimizing the businesses processes overall. The first and most important characteristic about a Six Sigma project is that it has a large enough effect for the business to care about. (Ouellette, 2009)
Six Sigma also has a two methodologies that were inspired by Deming's Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle.
DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) which is used to improve and existing project.
DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify) or DFSS (Design For Six Sigma) which is primarily used creating new processes or products.
Another popular tool is Lean Manufacturing. This is a method for eliminating the waste within a process. This process can achieve many things but is centered on focusing on what adds value to the company and reducing everything else.
Lean manufacturing was developed mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) in the 1990s to focus on the overall customer value. There are three types of waste, muda, muri and mura identified by Toyota.
Muri focusing on the process of preparation and planning. An example is unreasonable work placed on employees by management. Essentially this is asking for a higher level of performance than a process has the ability to handle.
Mura relates to how the work is implementing and eliminates the fluctation at the scheduling or operations level.
Muda is something that occurs after a process is in place and is dealt with reactively.
A typical example of the interplay of these wastes is the corporate behaviour of "making the numbers" as the end of a reporting period approaches. (Wikipedia, 2015)
Total Quality Management
The philosophy of Total Quality Management originated in the 1950s.
TQM is a management approach to long–term success through customer satisfaction.
The methods for implementing this approach come from the teachings of leaders such as Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, Armand V. Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa, and Joseph M. Juran.
TQM seeks to integrate all organizational functions (marketing, finance, design, production, customer service, etc.) to improving processes, products, services, meeting customer needs, and the culture in which they work
Total Quality Management is a continuous process.
Blakeman, Joseph. "Benchmarking: Definitions & Overview." UWM. Web. 11 June 2015. http://www.uwm.edu/cuts/bench/bm-desc.html
Manktelow, James. "The Theory of Contraints: Strengthening Your Weakest Link." Mind Tools. Web. 10 June 2015. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/toc.html
Muller, P., & Konstantinou, D. (2015, January 15). Philosophy of Project Management Creating Space - Creating Alternatives - Creating Ideas - Creating
Excellence in Practice. Retrieved from Project Management Journal: http://www.pmi.org/~/media/PDF/Academic/Philosophy%20of%20Project%20Management%20CfP.ashx
Ouellette, S. (2009, April 20). Project Selection for DMAIC. Retrieved from Quality Digest: http://www.qualitydigest.com/inside/six-sigma-column
"Theory of Constraints." Lean Production. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 June 2015. http://www.leanproduction.com/theory-of-constraints.html
Wikipedia. (2015, May 31). Six Sigma. Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Sigma
Wikipedia. (2015, June 8). Lean Manufacturing. Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lean_manufacturing
Lasa Information System Team. (2003, June 1). Project Management - Which method? Retrieved from Lasa: http://www.ictknowledgebase.org.uk/projectmanagementmethods
Created by: Jennifer Poulsen, Karly Gruener, Morgan Jensen
William Edwards Deming (Oct 14, 1900 – Dec 20, 1993)
American engineer, statistician, professor, author, lecturer, and management consultant
He believed that a key source of production quality is having clearly defined, repeatable processes.
The four phases in the Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle involve:
: Identifying and analyzing the problem.
: Developing and testing a potential solution.
: Measuring how effective the test solution was, and analyzing whether it could be improved in any way.
: Implementing the improved solution fully.
These four steps are repeated over and over as part of a never-ending cycle of continual improvement.
Exploring Philosophies Continued
Theory of Constraints
Introduced in 1984 by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt in his best selling novel "The Goal" & spread rapidly thereafter
Core concept is that every process has a single constraint & that total process throughput can only be improved when the constraint is improved ("Theory of Constraints.").
The 5 Focusing Steps
The Theory of Constraints uses a process known as The 5 Focusing Steps to identify and eliminate constraints (ie: bottlenecks) ("Theory of Constraints.").
: Identify the current constraint (the single part of the process that limits the range at which the goal is achieved).
: Make quick improvements to the throughput of the constraint using existing resources (ie: make the most of what you have).
: Review all other activities in the process to ensure that they are aligned with and truly support the needs of the constraint.
: If the constraint still exists (ie: it has not moved), consider what further actions can be taken to eliminate it from being the constraint
: Once a constraint is resolved the next constraint should immediately be addressed...move on to the next constraint
Contrasting Theory of Constraints with Lean Manufacturing
Combining Theory of Constraints & Lean Manufacturing
The Five Focusing Steps of the Theory of Constraints can utilize established lean manufacturing tools
Systematic process of searching for best practices, innovative ideas & highly effective operating procedures that lead to superior performance
Businesses such as AT&T, Xerox, and Motorola have embraced benchmarking as standard operating procedure since the mid-1980's.
Conditions for successful benchmarking focus essentially on careful preparation of the process, monitoring of the relevant indicators, staff involvement and inter-organizational visits (Blakeman).
Relationship Between Benchmarking & TQM
In general, TQM uses internal methods and the ideas of people within an organization to improve itself from the inside out. This does not include comparing one's organization to that of another, which is critical in Benchmarking (Blakeman).
However, due to the potential unwillingness of employees to accept ideas without understanding their logic, both TQM & Benchmarking require the input of everyone in an organization and a general resistance to change must be overcome (Blakeman).
The choice of project management methodology is less important than the way it is applied. Indeed any project management system will be better than none at all. The advocates of the different systems all claim some special strength to distinguish their system from their rivals, but in truth there is no magic bullet. The different systems have much in common and none of them will manage the project for you. They provide a framework, but the success of a project depends on the skills and intelligence of the people running it. (Lasa Information System Team, 2003)
Remember that project management must be a continual process to be effective. There needs to be a constant cycle of evaluation to determine where improvements can be made. This practice will likely deliver better results in your current and future projects.