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CHAPTER 7: Planning a Test and Construction of Table of Spec

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shar villaruz

on 10 June 2014

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Transcript of CHAPTER 7: Planning a Test and Construction of Table of Spec

CHAPTER 7: Planning a Test and Construction of Table of Specification (TOS)
Important Steps in Planning for a Test
1. Identifying test objectives
2. Deciding on the type of test to be prepared
3. Preparing a Table of Specifications
4. Constructing the draft test items
5. Try-out and Validation
1. Identifying Test Objectives
An objective test, if it is to be comprehensive must cover the various levels of Bloom's Taxonomy.
2. Deciding on the Type of Test to be Prepared
The test objectives guide the kind of test that will be designed and constructed by the teacher. For instance for the first four (4) levels, we may want to construct a
multiple-choice type
of test while for application and judgment, we may opt to give an
essay test.

TWO-WAY (TOS) IN ENGLISH V TEST
Example: We want to construct a test on the topic "Subject-Verb Agreement in English" for a Grade V class. The ff. are the typical objectives. The students must be able to:
1. KNOWLEDGE.

Identify the subject and the verb in a given sentence.
2. COMPREHENSION.

Determine the appropriate form of a verb to be used given the subject of the sentence.
3. APPLICATION.

Write sentences observing rules on subject-verb agreement.
4. ANALYSIS.

Breakdown a given sentence into its subject and verb.
5. SYNTHESIS/EVALUATION.
Formulate rules to be followed regarding subject-verb agreement.
Objectives
# of Class Sessions
# of
Items
Percentage of Items
Cognitive Level
K-C
A
HOTS
Type
of Test
Item
Placement
Identify the subject & the verb in a given sentence.
1
5
16.67%
5
Multiple
Choice
1-5
Determine the appropriate form of a verb to be used given the subject of the sentence.
1
5
16.67%
5
Multiple
Choice
6-10
3. Preparing a
Table of Specifications (TOS)
A table of specifications (TOS) is a test map that guides the teacher in constructing a test. It ensures that there is a balance between items that test lower order thinking skills (LOTS) and those which test higher order thinking skills (HOTS).
Write sentences observing rules on subject-verb agreement.
Break down a given sentence into its subject and verb.
Formulate rules to be followed regarding subject-verb agreement.
1
1
2
5
5
10
Total
6
30
100%
16.67%
16.67%
33.33%
5
5
10
5
10
15
Multiple
Choice
True
or
False
Essay
11
to
15
16
to
20
Part II
(10
pts.)
4. Constructing the Draft of Test Items
The actual construction of the test items follows the TOS. As a general rule, it is advised that the actual number of items to be constructed in the draft should be double the desired number of items. The subsequent try-out and item analysis will most likely eliminate many of the constructed items in the draft (either they are too difficult, too easy or non-discriminatory).
5. Item Analysis and Try-out
The test draft is tried out to a group of pupils. The purpose of this try out is to determine the (a) item characteristics through item analysis and (b) characteristics of the test itself- validity, reliability and practicality.
Item Analysis
a process which examines student response to individual test items (questions) in order to assess the quality of those items and of the test as a whole.
it provides the
following:
1. the difficulty of the item
2. the discriminating power of the item
3. the effective of each alternative (for multiple choice type of test)
Benefits derived from item analysis:
1. Provides useful information for class discussion of the test.
2. Provides data which helps the students improve their learning.
3. Provides insights & skills which lead to the construction of better test items for future use.
Steps in Item Analysis (U-L Method)
1. Arrange the scores from highest to lowest.
2. Get the top 27% & the lowest 27% & name them as Upper Group (UG) & Lower Group (LG).
3. Compute the index of difficulty for each item.
4. Compute the index of discrimination for each item.
5. Interpret the results.
6. Indicate the necessary action.
Difficulty Index (ID)
refers to the ease or difficulty of a test item. It is defined as the number of students who are able to answer the item correctly divided by the total number of students.
Formula:
D= RU + RL
T
where; D = index of difficulty/ percentage who
answered the item correctly
RU= the number in the upper group who
answered the item correctly
RL = the number in the lower group who
answered the item correctly
T = the total number of students who tried the
item/total number of students in the two
groups
Range of Difficulty Index
Interpretation
0.00 - 0.20
0.21 - 0.40
0.41 - 0.60
0.61 - 0.80
0.81 and above
Very Difficult Item
Difficult Item
Moderately Difficult Item
Easy Item
Very Easy Item
Index of
Discrimination (ID)
the item's ability to distinguish between those who know the answer and those who are merely guessing.
where; ID = index of discrimination
RU= the number in the upper group who
answered the item correctly
RL = the number in the lower group who
answered the item correctly
T = the total number of students who tried
the item/total number of students in the
two groups
Formula:
ID= RU - RL
1/2 T
Range of ID
Interpretation
-1.00 to -0.01
0.00
0.01 - 0.19
0.20 - 0.40
0.41 - 0.60
0.61 - 1.00
Questionable Item
No Discriminating Power
Very Low Discriminating Power
Low Discriminating Power
Moderately Discriminating Power
Very Discriminating Power
Action Table:
D
ID
Remarks
Action
Acceptable
Acceptable
Not
Not
Acceptable
Not
Acceptable
Not
Good
Fair
Fair
Poor
Retain
Revise
Revise
Reject/Discard
Acceptable Difficulty Index (D)
Acceptable Index of Discrimination (ID)
0.41-0.60 (MDI)
0.20-1.00 (Low-VDP)
Example:
Suppose a 40-item test given to 40 students in Math 2. Compute the difficult index and index of discrimination of the following test results. Interpret your answers & determine what actions you should take. Show your answers in a table.
Item No.
RU
RL
8
9
5
10
7
1
2
3
4
5
3
4
1
8
8
Solution:
1. Get the 27% of the total number of students to determine the number of students who are included in the item analysis. Round off your answer to nearest whole number. In the example, .27 x 40 = 10.8 = 11. It means that 11 students from the UG & another 11 from the LG from a total of 22 students will be involved in the item analysis.
2. Compute the ID then interpret:
For item no.1, we have;
D = 8+3 = 11= 0.50
11 22
Moderately Difficult Item, Acceptable
Compute the ID then interpret:
For item no.1, we have;
ID = 8 - 3 = 5 = 0.45
11 11
Moderately Discriminating Power, Acceptable
Item
RU
RL
D
ID
Remarks
Action
1
2
3
4
5
8
9
5
10
7
3
4
1
8
8
0.50
0.60
0.27
0.82
0.68
0.45
0.45
0.36
0.18
-0.1
Good
Good
Good
Fair
Poor
Retain
Retain
Retain
Revise
Reject
BSED II-B (BIOSCI MAJOR)
VILLARUZ, STEPHANIE
DOMASIAN, RAINIEL BRYAN
ARGOTE, ERIC
LANUANG, MARK ANTHONY
MONTALLA, ALVIN
ABRAHAM, KAROL ANN
MARK MARCO TERIBLE
MAMIIT, SHEENA CAMILLE
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