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Focus 9: Protein Synthesis

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Nicole Martin

on 8 November 2016

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Transcript of Focus 9: Protein Synthesis

Protein Synthesis
Focus 9
BOCW
What is the purpose of Meiosis?
DNA Structure
Essential Question
What are the major parts of DNA and how are they put together?
Overview
STRUCTURE
Double Helix
Sugar-phosphate backbone
Complimentary bases
REPLICATION
Unzipping
Enzymes involved
Mutations
Watson & Crick
First to describe the molecular structure of DNA.
Won the 1962 Nobel Prize for their work.
Wait... who's that woman?
Rosalind Franklin
Took the first picture of DNA.
Her work enabled Watson and Crick's.
Double Helix
The well known shape of DNA.
Look at it flat...
Sugar-Phosphate Backbone

Nitrogenous base pairs
Nitrogenous Bases
Parts of the DNA containing nitrogen.
TWO TYPES:
Purines: 2 Rings
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Pyrimidines: 1 Ring
Thymine (T)
Cytosine (C)
Complementary Base Pairs
cytosine (C) always with guanine (G)
adenine (A) always with thymine (T)
G - C
A - T
Weak Hydrogen bonds keep the base pairs together!!!

Left Side- DNA Structure
COLOR & LABEL
Bases
Hydrogen bonds
Sugar molecule
Phosphate molecule
Backbone
A - red
T - blue
G - green
C - yellow
pink
purple
orange
words
Stop & Review!
What type of macromolecule is DNA?


What is the monomer of DNA?
Stop & Review
DNA has to replicate, Why?


When does this happen?
Exit Ticket
HOW does DNA store your genetic code?
DNA
Replication

BOCW
What are the four base pairs that can be found in DNA?
Essential Question
What are the steps of DNA replication?
Replication
What does this word mean?
To make a copy of something.
To make a copy of something.
Semi-Conservative
...is how we describe DNA replication!
What does it mean to conserve something?
To save or preserve it!
What does semi- mean?
Only part of it!
Each new strand is half “old” and half “new”!!!

Steps of...
DNA
replication
STEP 1
DNA HELICASE
A protein called DNA Helicase unwinds double helix.

Results in a replication fork.

STEP 2
DNA Polymerase
DNA Polymerase adds new nucleic acid molecules to the half strands left behind by the helicase.

STEP 3
DNA polymerase does not always start in the same place!
Can start in many places at once!
DNA Ligase
Means “to glue together”

Connects all of the nucleotides together to form two complementary strands of DNA

DNA Replication
activity #1
Back of your vocab!
Draw and explain the steps of DNA Replication!!!
How to...
REPLICATE DNA
AGT GGC TAT
ORIGINAL DNA:
NEW DNA:
TCA
CCG
ATA
YOU TRY IT...
GGC
TAG
CTA
CCG
ATC
GAT
lEFT SIDE ACTIVITY #2
Practice your DNA replication!!!!
What's wrong with this?
Find the error!!!
TTA GCG ATG CAT
AAT CCC TAC GTC
EXIT TICKET
Replicate the DNA.
GCA CCC TTG ATG
RNA Structure
BOCW
What are the three steps of DNA replication?
Essential Question
How does the structure of RNA differ from that of DNA?
RNA
RIBONUCLEIC ACID
phosphate
ribose sugar
bases
RNA Bases
RNA has slightly different bases from DNA. They are...
A - Adenine
C- Cytosine
G - Guanine
U - Uracil
DNA
double helix
RNA
Helix
sugar=
deoxyribose
sugar=
ribose
More... dna replication practice
exit ticket
List three ways that RNA and DNA are different!
Transcription

BOCW
List at least three differences between DNA and RNA.
Essential Question
What are the three types of RNA and their functions?
Remember...
DNA RNA

Adenine (A)
Cytosine (C)
Guanine (G)
Thymine (T)

Adenine (A)
Cytosine (C)
Guanine (G)
Uracil (U)

3
Types of
RNA
Messenger RNA
(mRNA)
Location:
Nucleus, then migrates to cytoplasm.
Function:
Carries DNA sequence information to ribosomes.
Transfer RNA
(tRNA)
Location:
Cytoplasm
Function:
Provides linkage between mRNA and amino acids.
Transfers amino acids to ribosomes.
Ribosomal RNA
(rRNA)
Location:
Cytoplasm
Function:
Structural component of ribosomes.
Steps of Protein Synthesis
DNA
mRNA
Amino Acids
Protein
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS:
Making proteins.
Transcription
DNA to RNA in Nucleus

Step 1:
RNA Helicase binds to promoter site and separates DNA molecule.

Step 2:
RNA Polymerase adds complementary nucleotides to RNA Molecule.

Step 3:
Polymerase reaches DNA termination signal (marks the end of a gene).

Step 4:
RNA polymerase releases both the DNA and RNA molecule.

Transcription
Complementary Base Pairs:
Adenine
pairs with
Uracil

Cyotsine
pairs with
Guanine
Transcription is used to make all three kinds of RNA molecules.

Once completed, the new RNA molecule moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.


Transcription
PRACTICE:
ACT GGT ACC TTT ACG

Thymine
pairs with
Adenine
UGA
CCA
UGG
AAA
UGC
PRACTICE:
TAT GCC TCA GGG ATG
AUA
CGG
AGU
CCC
UAG
Translation
Exit Ticket
How is transcription different from replication?
codons
A grouping of three mRNA nucleotides.

It codes for an amino acid.
Translation
How RNA puts amino acids together in a chain to form polypeptides (proteins).
Where does mRNA get the genetic coding for the genes?

It can be TRANSCRIBED to RNA as:
AUGGCUGUAAAGAGCUAG

...or it can be written to show codons:
AUG GCU GUA AAG AGC UAG

How many codons are written above?
DNA can be written as:
TACCGACATTTCTCGATC
Codons you need to know:
Certain codons can start and stop translation!
AUG = Start
UAA = Stop
UAG = Stop
UGA = Stop

Step 1:
The beginning of translation is signified when mRNA leaves the nucleus.

Steps of
translation
Step 2:
The small unit of the ribosome connects with the mRNA chain at the AUG (start) codon.

Step 3:
Then the large subunit connects to the small subunit of the ribosome.

Step 4:
The codon in mRNA pairs with the anticodon on the tRNA.

Don't memorize all the codons
... just use the chart!!!
Green paper in your folder!!! Keep this for reference!
anticodon
The three letters on mRNA that code for the codon.
ROUND codon chart
... works the same way!
Start in the middle
Work OUT!!!
Step 5:
Two tRNA molecules bind to mRNA and the amino acid molecules bond to form a protein chain.

Activity:
transcription practice
Practice transcription of DNA to mRNA!
You will also do MORE practice duplicating DNA!
Activity #2
Practice Protein Synthesis!
review
DNA Replication
S phase of interphase before Mitosis
Helicase- unwinds DNA
Polymerase- adds nitrogenous bases to new strand

1. Transcription
DNA to mRNA in the nucleus

2. Translarion
mRNA to amino acids to proteins in cytoplasm

Codons are mRNA that code for amino acids

Let's do the whole process!!!
CCT CTT TTC ACA CGG AGG GTA
DNA:
mRNA:
GGA GAA AAG UGU GCC UCC CAU
Amino Acids:
glycine-glycine-lysine-cysteine-alanine-serine-histidine
Guanine
pairs with
Cytosine
Nucleotide
1. PHOSPHATE
2. 5C SUGAR
3. NITROGENOUS BASE
pg. 213
Full transcript