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Focus 9: Protein Synthesis
Transcript of Focus 9: Protein Synthesis
What is the purpose of Meiosis?
What are the major parts of DNA and how are they put together?
Watson & Crick
First to describe the molecular structure of DNA.
Won the 1962 Nobel Prize for their work.
Wait... who's that woman?
Took the first picture of DNA.
Her work enabled Watson and Crick's.
The well known shape of DNA.
Look at it flat...
Nitrogenous base pairs
Parts of the DNA containing nitrogen.
Purines: 2 Rings
Pyrimidines: 1 Ring
Complementary Base Pairs
cytosine (C) always with guanine (G)
adenine (A) always with thymine (T)
G - C
A - T
Weak Hydrogen bonds keep the base pairs together!!!
Left Side- DNA Structure
COLOR & LABEL
A - red
T - blue
G - green
C - yellow
Stop & Review!
What type of macromolecule is DNA?
What is the monomer of DNA?
Stop & Review
DNA has to replicate, Why?
When does this happen?
HOW does DNA store your genetic code?
What are the four base pairs that can be found in DNA?
What are the steps of DNA replication?
What does this word mean?
To make a copy of something.
To make a copy of something.
...is how we describe DNA replication!
What does it mean to conserve something?
To save or preserve it!
What does semi- mean?
Only part of it!
Each new strand is half “old” and half “new”!!!
A protein called DNA Helicase unwinds double helix.
Results in a replication fork.
DNA Polymerase adds new nucleic acid molecules to the half strands left behind by the helicase.
DNA polymerase does not always start in the same place!
Can start in many places at once!
Means “to glue together”
Connects all of the nucleotides together to form two complementary strands of DNA
Back of your vocab!
Draw and explain the steps of DNA Replication!!!
AGT GGC TAT
YOU TRY IT...
lEFT SIDE ACTIVITY #2
Practice your DNA replication!!!!
What's wrong with this?
Find the error!!!
TTA GCG ATG CAT
AAT CCC TAC GTC
Replicate the DNA.
GCA CCC TTG ATG
What are the three steps of DNA replication?
How does the structure of RNA differ from that of DNA?
RNA has slightly different bases from DNA. They are...
A - Adenine
G - Guanine
U - Uracil
More... dna replication practice
List three ways that RNA and DNA are different!
List at least three differences between DNA and RNA.
What are the three types of RNA and their functions?
Nucleus, then migrates to cytoplasm.
Carries DNA sequence information to ribosomes.
Provides linkage between mRNA and amino acids.
Transfers amino acids to ribosomes.
Structural component of ribosomes.
Steps of Protein Synthesis
DNA to RNA in Nucleus
RNA Helicase binds to promoter site and separates DNA molecule.
RNA Polymerase adds complementary nucleotides to RNA Molecule.
Polymerase reaches DNA termination signal (marks the end of a gene).
RNA polymerase releases both the DNA and RNA molecule.
Complementary Base Pairs:
Transcription is used to make all three kinds of RNA molecules.
Once completed, the new RNA molecule moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
ACT GGT ACC TTT ACG
TAT GCC TCA GGG ATG
How is transcription different from replication?
A grouping of three mRNA nucleotides.
It codes for an amino acid.
How RNA puts amino acids together in a chain to form polypeptides (proteins).
Where does mRNA get the genetic coding for the genes?
It can be TRANSCRIBED to RNA as:
...or it can be written to show codons:
AUG GCU GUA AAG AGC UAG
How many codons are written above?
DNA can be written as:
Codons you need to know:
Certain codons can start and stop translation!
AUG = Start
UAA = Stop
UAG = Stop
UGA = Stop
The beginning of translation is signified when mRNA leaves the nucleus.
The small unit of the ribosome connects with the mRNA chain at the AUG (start) codon.
Then the large subunit connects to the small subunit of the ribosome.
The codon in mRNA pairs with the anticodon on the tRNA.
Don't memorize all the codons
... just use the chart!!!
Green paper in your folder!!! Keep this for reference!
The three letters on mRNA that code for the codon.
ROUND codon chart
... works the same way!
Start in the middle
Two tRNA molecules bind to mRNA and the amino acid molecules bond to form a protein chain.
Practice transcription of DNA to mRNA!
You will also do MORE practice duplicating DNA!
Practice Protein Synthesis!
S phase of interphase before Mitosis
Helicase- unwinds DNA
Polymerase- adds nitrogenous bases to new strand
DNA to mRNA in the nucleus
mRNA to amino acids to proteins in cytoplasm
Codons are mRNA that code for amino acids
Let's do the whole process!!!
CCT CTT TTC ACA CGG AGG GTA
GGA GAA AAG UGU GCC UCC CAU
2. 5C SUGAR
3. NITROGENOUS BASE