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Immigrants and Urbanization

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by

Jason Hill

on 26 January 2015

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Transcript of Immigrants and Urbanization

Immigrants and Urbanization
The New Immigrants
"Who were these people and
why did they come here?"

Europeans

Religious persecution
Population explosion = scarcity

Chinese/Japanese
Gold Rush
Chinese labored on transcontinental RR
Wages much higher in U.S.

Mexico/Caribbean
Many more jobs in the U.S.
Political turmoil in Mexico
Challenges of Urbanization
The "tech boom" of the 19th century and increased industrial strength resulted in rapid urbanization - growth of cities

Immigrants go to the cities because cheap, convenient, and offer steady unskilled work

Americanization movement was designed to assimilate people of different cultures into dominant culture
Gilded - Shiny at first sight, not so nice underneath

Political machines controlled activities of city political parties and provided for voters in exchange for support

Political bosses sometimes helped provide vital services which may have been difficult to obtain

In big cities, political machines had a strong influence in ethnic communities

Politics in the Gilded Age
The trip...
Immigrants coming from Europe faced an arduous week-long journey

The trip took three weeks from Asia

Immigrants arriving to the East Coast were inspected at Ellis Island in New York Harbor
Those arriving in the west were inspected at Angel Island in San Francisco
Ethnic communities develop...
Immigration restriction
Many native born see the U.S. as a melting pot - mix of cultures, blended by the abandonment of home cultures

"Nativism" - overt favoritism toward native-born Americans

Nativism often had more to do with the religion of immigrants than the country of their birth
Anti-Asian Sentiment
Fear of job scarcity fuels nativism in the labor movement

Congress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act, bans Chinese immigration for ten years

San Francisco board of education segregated Japanese students in separate schools

President Theodore Roosevelt agrees to end school segregation if Japan limits immigration of unskilled workers - the "Gentleman's Agreement"
NO money, mo problems...
Housing
Tenements - overcrowded, unsanitary multi-family urban dwellings

Transportation
Mass transit
develops
-

transportation designed to move large numbers of people on fixed routes

Water
Many cities through mid 1800s had inadequate or lacking plumbing


More urban problems...
Sanitation
Refuse and manure piled up on streets, industrial pollution in air

Crime
Population increase = increase in thievery. Police departments too small

Fire
Limited water supply and densely-packed wooden structures lead to deadly fires
Concerned citizens emerge...
Social Gospel Movement - salvation through service to the poor

Settlement houses provide assistance in immigrant slums
Run mostly by college-educated, middle class women
Jane Addams founded Chicago's Hull House
- workers lived there to learn problems first-hand
Ethnic enclaves develop around the idea of cooperation

Communities provide support for people of similar culture, religion, and language

Conflict between assimilation and regard for birth cultures leads to "hyphenated" Americans
Political corruption - efforts to reform
Political machines engage in election fraud and
graft - the illegal use of political influence for personal gain

"Boss Tweed" led Tammany Hall political machine that defrauded New York City - cartoonist Thomas Nast brings attention to him - cartoon leads to arrest

Many begin to question
patronage - the giving of government jobs to those who helped the candidate's election

Reformers believe civil service jobs - jobs in government administration - should go to most qualified
Rutherford B. Hayes
- started reforming by hiring Independents and by firing corrupt officials

James A. Garfield
- Garfield is a reformer and is balanced out by VP Arthur who is supposed to be an old-school spoils system supporter

Chester A. Arthur
- After Garfield is assassinated Arthur becomes president. Once in office Arthur becomes a reformer

Pendleton Civil Service Act - bipartisan commission to appoint federal job positions through merit, based on an exam
3 Presidents work to reform Civil Service
Full transcript