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Immigrants and Urbanization
Transcript of Immigrants and Urbanization
The New Immigrants
"Who were these people and
why did they come here?"
Population explosion = scarcity
Chinese labored on transcontinental RR
Wages much higher in U.S.
Many more jobs in the U.S.
Political turmoil in Mexico
Challenges of Urbanization
The "tech boom" of the 19th century and increased industrial strength resulted in rapid urbanization - growth of cities
Immigrants go to the cities because cheap, convenient, and offer steady unskilled work
Americanization movement was designed to assimilate people of different cultures into dominant culture
Gilded - Shiny at first sight, not so nice underneath
Political machines controlled activities of city political parties and provided for voters in exchange for support
Political bosses sometimes helped provide vital services which may have been difficult to obtain
In big cities, political machines had a strong influence in ethnic communities
Politics in the Gilded Age
Immigrants coming from Europe faced an arduous week-long journey
The trip took three weeks from Asia
Immigrants arriving to the East Coast were inspected at Ellis Island in New York Harbor
Those arriving in the west were inspected at Angel Island in San Francisco
Ethnic communities develop...
Many native born see the U.S. as a melting pot - mix of cultures, blended by the abandonment of home cultures
"Nativism" - overt favoritism toward native-born Americans
Nativism often had more to do with the religion of immigrants than the country of their birth
Fear of job scarcity fuels nativism in the labor movement
Congress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act, bans Chinese immigration for ten years
San Francisco board of education segregated Japanese students in separate schools
President Theodore Roosevelt agrees to end school segregation if Japan limits immigration of unskilled workers - the "Gentleman's Agreement"
NO money, mo problems...
Tenements - overcrowded, unsanitary multi-family urban dwellings
transportation designed to move large numbers of people on fixed routes
Many cities through mid 1800s had inadequate or lacking plumbing
More urban problems...
Refuse and manure piled up on streets, industrial pollution in air
Population increase = increase in thievery. Police departments too small
Limited water supply and densely-packed wooden structures lead to deadly fires
Concerned citizens emerge...
Social Gospel Movement - salvation through service to the poor
Settlement houses provide assistance in immigrant slums
Run mostly by college-educated, middle class women
Jane Addams founded Chicago's Hull House
- workers lived there to learn problems first-hand
Ethnic enclaves develop around the idea of cooperation
Communities provide support for people of similar culture, religion, and language
Conflict between assimilation and regard for birth cultures leads to "hyphenated" Americans
Political corruption - efforts to reform
Political machines engage in election fraud and
graft - the illegal use of political influence for personal gain
"Boss Tweed" led Tammany Hall political machine that defrauded New York City - cartoonist Thomas Nast brings attention to him - cartoon leads to arrest
Many begin to question
patronage - the giving of government jobs to those who helped the candidate's election
Reformers believe civil service jobs - jobs in government administration - should go to most qualified
Rutherford B. Hayes
- started reforming by hiring Independents and by firing corrupt officials
James A. Garfield
- Garfield is a reformer and is balanced out by VP Arthur who is supposed to be an old-school spoils system supporter
Chester A. Arthur
- After Garfield is assassinated Arthur becomes president. Once in office Arthur becomes a reformer
Pendleton Civil Service Act - bipartisan commission to appoint federal job positions through merit, based on an exam
3 Presidents work to reform Civil Service