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History of American Education Timeline
Transcript of History of American Education Timeline
1635 – First Public School
Boston Latin School, in Massachusetts, opened the first public secondary school. The development of Latin Grammar Schools was designed for sons of certain social classes whom were destined for leadership positions in church, state, or courts. The schools’ curriculum followed that of the 18th century Latin-school movement, which holds the classics to be the basis of an educated mind. The school still teaches a ‘contemporary classical education.
HIS 324: History of American Education
Instructor: Doug Stave
April 29, 2014
1642 – The Massachusetts Bay School Law
The Massachusetts Bay School Law required parents to guarantee that their children had the knowledge of the religion principles and the capital laws of the commonwealth. As Gaither (2011), stated that, “Massachusetts Bay was the first colony to pass a law mandating schooling” (Ch 2.2). Despite, Massachusetts law to require children to be taught to read and understand the principles of religion little was done to enforce this policy.
1674 – The Massachusetts Law of 1647
Gaither (2011) explained that, the Massachusetts General Court Responded to the lack of action towards the Massachusetts Bay School Law, with one of the most famous laws in American education history with the Old Deluder Satan law. The law decrees that, every town of at least fifty families hire a schoolmaster who would teach the town’s children to read and write and that all towns of at least a hundred families should have a Latin grammar school master who will prepare student to attend Harvard College (Ch. 2.2).
1690 – New England Primer
The New-England Primer was the first reading primer designed for the American Colonies. The selections varied somewhat across time, there was standard content for beginning reading instruction as Gaither (2001), describes the primer as, an 88-page reader that began with basic letters and worked up to passages from the King James Bible, the Westminster Shorter Catechism, and other Puritan texts (Ch 2.4). It became the most widely used school textbook in New England.
1801 – Invention of the Blackboard
James Pillans was credited with introducing the first modern blackboard into the classroom. Blackboard influenced American Education through their simple, effective, and economical use. Before these blackboards, were used in the classrooms, teachers had no way to present a lesson to the whole class; instead, teachers had to go around to each individual student and write on each student’s slate, which was high inefficient (Concordia University, 2014). Blackboards and its cousin, the whiteboards, are still used in classrooms today.
The 17th Century
The 19th Century
The 20th Century
The 21st Century
1817 – First School for the
Deaf and Dumb
The Connecticut Asylum at Hartford for the Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons opens. It is the first permanent school for the deaf and dumb founded by Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (Gaither, 2011). Students who attended this institute were taught manualism, what we today know as sign language. Gallaudet’s school for the deaf and dumb quickly caught on and by 1907, there were 131 schools serving such students with deafness (Gaither, 2011).
1837 – Horace Mann
The newly formed Massachusetts State Board of Education names Horace Mann its first Secretary. Mann, a visionary educator and proponent of free schools, worked tirelessly for increased funding of public schools and better training for teachers. The author of the Common School Journal, his belief in the importance of free, universal public education gains a national audience. Horace Mann supervises the creation of a statewide common-school system that provides schooling for all white children with a uniform curriculum (Gaither, 2011).
1852 – First mandatory
The Compulsory Attendance Act of 1852 enacted by the state of Massachusetts was the first general law attempting to control the conditions of children. The law included mandatory attendance for children between the ages of eight and fourteen for at least three months out of each year, of these twelve weeks at least sex had to be consecutive (Grocke, n/d).
1857 – Birth of Teachers’ Union
The National Teachers Association was founded by forty-three Philadelphia educators. According to Gaither (2001), the NEA’s purpose, in the early years, is to serve as a society for male school leaders to discuss policy and curricular issues (Ch. 8.7). Today, the organization is known as the National Education Association and has millions members.
1867 – The Department of Education
The Federal Office of Education was created to help states develop stronger schools U.S. Department of Education, 2012). The office, now is known as the U.S. Department of Education, today administers federal funding for schools and federal education laws. It ensures that education is accessible to all people, regardless of race, gender, economic status, or physical or mental disability.
1874 – Kalamazoo School Case
1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson
1946 – National School Lunch Act
The 79th Congress recognized the need for a permanent legislative basis for a school lunch program (Gunderson, 2013). The Act expands access of school lunches by making available to reduce or free lunches for low-income students. The purpose of the program was to absorb farm surpluses, while at the same time providing school lunches.
1954 – Brown vs. Board of Education
1962 – Banning Prayer
1965 – Federal Funding
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was passed as a part of the “War on Poverty,” it provided federal funds to help low-income students, with emphasized equal access to education and establishes high standards and accountability (Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, n/d). While giving federal funds to schools the Act forbid a national curriculum.
1972 – Title IX
1973 – The Rehabilitation Act
Section 504 of this act guarantees civil rights for people with disabilities in the context of federally funded institutions and requires accommodation in schools including participation in programs and activities as well as access to buildings. Today, 504 Plans are used to provide accommodations for student with disabilities who do not qualify for special education or an IEP.
1975 – The Education of All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142)
The federal law requires that a free, appropriate public education, suited to the student’s individual needs, the rights of children with disabilities and their parents are protected, offered in the least restrictive setting be provided for all children with disabilities, and to assess and assure the effectiveness of these programs (Gaither, 2011). Later, the law was renamed to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
1983 – ‘A Nation at Risk’ Report
The National Commission on Excellence in Education releases a report highly critical of the declining performance of students in the U.S. public schools. As Scherer (n/d), states in her article, A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform, that, the report called for sweeping educational reforms and teacher training (para 5). In response, states and local districts adopt initiatives to raise student achievement. The federal government supports some if these efforts by focusing public attention on school reform and providing improvement grants.
The Act requires a common curriculum and statewide tests. Through this legislation, it creates the framework for unprecedented improvements in students learning, teachers’ professionalism, school management, and equity of funding (Massachusetts Department of Elementary & Secondary Education, 1995). Other states soon follow Massachusetts’ lead and implement similar, high-stakes testing programs.
1993 – Massachusetts Education Reform Act
2001 – No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
2009 – Common Core State Standards
2010 – Race to the Top
1994-1995 – Whiteboards enter
In increasing volume, Whiteboards enter into U.S. classrooms and begin to replace the blackboards. As Manzo (2010), states that, “educators look for ways to present subject matter in more engaging ways that also develop some of the technical skills students need to succeed in the high-tech workplace, more and more administrators and parent-teacher organizations are purchasing interactive whiteboards for their schools” (pg. 34).
The U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld the Louisiana law, “Separate Car Act,” arguing that requiring Blacks to ride in separate railroad care violates the 13th and 14th Amendments; however, the court stated that the 14th Amendment had not been intended to abolish distinctions based on color (The Oyez Project, 2011). Thus, making “separate but equal” policies legal and used to justify many other segregation laws, including in education.
The U.S. Supreme Court announces its unanimous decision that separate educational facilities are naturally unconstitutional thus, overturning the ruling in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson. As Gaither (2011), emphasized that, “the Brown decision laid the legal groundwork for racial integration and inspired African Americans to organize powerful social protests to secure their political rights” (Ch.5.2).
The Supreme Court ruled that, organized prayer in public schools violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment in Engel v. Vitale. The Court emphasized the importance of the separation between church and state, which school prayer is a religious activity therefore, constitutionally impermissible. The case sets a precedent for limiting prayer in public schools.
“Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities which receive Federal financial assistance” (U.S. Department of Education, 2012). The legislation is best known for equal treatment and opportunity for girls in school athletics. Title IX secured equal protection of sex in all aspects of education.
According to the New America Foundation (2013), President George W. Bush signs the No Child Left Behind Act into law, which is the most recent iteration of the 1965 ESEA, the federal law that authorizing federal spending to support school programs (Para 1). NCLB required testing, accountability, and development of a plan to identify poorly performing public schools and establish educational standards that all students must meet. School that fail to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward state proficiency standards must permit students to transfer to better-performing public schools. Schools that persist in low performance must then implement corrective actions, such as replacing certain teachers, or they risk being restructured or taken over by the state.
The development of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative was a state-led effort coordinated by the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. According to the Council of Chief State School Officers (2014) explains that, “A diverse team of teachers, parents, administrators, researchers and content experts developed the CCSS to be academically rigorous, attainable for students, and practical for teachers and districts, and an expert validation committee provided an independent review of the standards. The standards are research and evidence-based and internationally benchmarked” (para 1).
President Barack Obama’s Race to the Top (RTTT) program ushers in a wave of education reforms as states complete for federal grants in the midst of a recession. “[RTTT] is designed to spur systemic reform and embrace innovative approaches to teaching and learning in America’s schools [and] prepare American’s students to graduate ready for college and career, and enable them to out-compete any worker, anywhere in the world” (WhiteHouse.gov, 2009).
American Education has undergone many incredible changes, both positive and negative throughout the course of our history. The combination of these historical events has created what, we, currently know and call the educational system in America.
Before the common school movement that, Horace Mann envisioned, the educated were only white wealthy men and women. Today, public schools gives everyone the opportunity to receive a free rigorous education no matter of race, age, gender, or socioeconomic status. The men and women that laid the foundation and bricks to build our current educational system were the innovators that fraught for equal rights and freedoms embedded into our current educational institutions.
Concordia University. (2014). The History of the Classroom Blackboard. Retrieved from http://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/reference-material/the-history-of-the-classroom-blackboard/
Council of Chief State School Officers. (2014). The Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). Retrieved from http://www.ccsso.org/Resources/Programs/The_Common_Core_State_Standards_Initiative.html
Gaither, M. (2011). History of American education. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Grocke, V. (n/d). Compulsory Education. Retrieved from http://www3.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/compulso.html
Gunderson, G. (2013). National School Lunch Act. Retrieved from http://www.fns.usda.gov/nslp/history_5
Manzo, K. (2010). Whiteboard’s Impact on Teaching Seen as Uneven. Education Week. 3(2), 34. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/dd/articles/2010/01/08/02whiteboards.h03.html
Massachusetts Department of Elementary & Secondary Education. (1995). Educational Reform. Retrieved from http://www.doe.mass.edu/edreform/1st_Imp/EXEC.SUMMARY.html
New American Foundation. (2013). No Child Left Behind – Overview. Retrieved from http://febp.newamerica.net/background-analysis/no-child-left-behind-overview
Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. (n/d). Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved from http://www.k12.wa.us/Esea/default.aspx
Plessy v. Ferguson. (2011). The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. Retrieved from http://www.oyez.org/cases/1851-1900/1895/1895_210#mla
Scherer, M. (n/d). A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform, 1983. Retrieved from https://www3.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/nationrs.html
U.S. Department of Education. (2012). The Federal Role of Education. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html?src=ln
WhiteHouse.gov. (2009). Fact Sheet: The Race to the Top. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/fact-sheet-race-top
Wright, S. (n/d). The Kalamazoo Case. Retrieved from https://www3.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/kalamazo.html
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