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TOK Emotion Presentation

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john marshall

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of TOK Emotion Presentation

Knowledge Question: To what extent can we understand the emotion and/or emotional intelligence in other beings?
Information About Human Emotions
- emotions are caused by chemical reactions in the brain
- different neurotransmitters cause different emotional reactions
- chemicals pass from neurons to neurons via synapses
- most of the reactions occur in the Limbic System of the brain

Acetylcholine: is a very widely distributed excitatory neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction and stimulates the excretion of certain hormones. In the central nervous system, it is involved in wakefulness, attentiveness, anger, aggression, sexuality, and thirst, among other things.
Glutamate: neurotransmitter that is associated with learning and memory. Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system.
Serotonin: contributes to various functions, such as regulating body temperature, sleep, mood, appetite, and pain.
Why Are Emotional Theories, And Why is Brain Chemistry Important?
- not all animals have the same brain chemistry
- are chemical reactions in the brain one of the necessary qualities of a being that possesses emotion and/or emotional intelligence?
- do machines possess emotional intelligence even though they don't have brain chemistry?
- which emotional theory relates to which emotion possessing entity?
This is 'Kismet'
- Kismet was created in 1997 as one of the preliminary attempts at creating a robot with emotions
- he is able to communicate 7 different anthropomorphized emotions
Does Kismet possess emotional intelligence?
Dylan Evans:
- author of several popular science books
- recieved his PhD in Philosophy from the London School of Economics
- taught robotics at the University of West England
- Kimset certainly exhibits some emotional behaviour
- we must admit that it has some emotional capacity

Evans's interpretation is that since Kismet can replicate emotional expressions created by humans, that it should be classified as having emotional intelligence.
Perspective 1
Dr. Rosalind Picard:
- founder and director of the Affective Computing Research group at MIT.
- Author of over two hundred scientific articles
Her Perspective on Kismet
- We are "not near giving machines feelings like what you and I experience"
- " We give them functions that behave like emotions"
- " Robots don't feel frustrated, they emulate frustration"
Perspective 2
Picard's interpretation is that Kismet can only mask emotions and that it does not truly possess emotional intelligence.
His perspective on Kismet
Real Life Situation
Let's look at another example
Android Robots by David Hanson
- these robots were created in 2009
- these robots cause humans to feel emotions such as happiness or sadness
- these emotions are caused by the expressions of these David Hanson Robots

Do these androids possess emotions and/or emotional intelligence?
Key Terms
Emotional Intelligence: the capacity to be aware of, control, and express one's emotions, and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically.

Emotion: 1) a strong feeling, such as joy or anger.

2) instinctive feeling as distinguished from reasoning or knowledge

Do Animals Have Emotions?
- We all agree that dogs and cats have emotions
- do insects have emotions?
- do mosquitoes feel guilty when they bite humans?
- let's look at Geraldine Wright's examination of the emotions of bees

Do Bees Have Emotions?
Geraldine Wright, professor at Newcastle University examines the emotions of bees

- bees gently curl and uncoil their tapered mouths towards food,
- they also seem to show annoyance or agitation with hesitant flicks and sags of their antennae
- Bees are invertebrates- animals without backbones
- invertebrates lack many major brain structures
- on the other hand, they do posses the rudiments of our stress response system
- it is not yet possible to scientifically prove that bees have emotions

(clearly expressing emotion)
let's look at another real life example
James-Lange Theory
: Emotions are physical: bodily changes come first and cause emotional changes. Proposed in 1884

Event -> arousal-> interpretation->emotion

Example: I see a bear. My muscles tense, my heart races. I feel afraid.

Cannon-Bard Theory: When a stimulating event happens, we feel emotions and physiological changes (such as muscular tension, sweating, etc.) at the same time. Proposed in the 1920s.

Event ==> Simultaneous arousal and emotion

Two-Factor Theory: we experience feelings and then decide what they mean. (1962)
Stanley Schachter

Event ==> arousal ==> reasoning ==> emotion
Why Do Humans Notice Emotions in Some Animals But Not in Others?
- Humans anthropomorphize anything that looks remotely close to a human face

Anthropomorphism: the attribution of human characteristics or behaviour to a god, animal, or object.

- Lizards are reptiles that have emotions, however, humans do not associate emotions with lizards because they express their emotions in a different way

Let's analyze real life situations
- Emotion is a complex way of knowing
- there are many non-human entities in the world whose emotional situation is unclear
- whether or not animals or robots do possess emotions and/or emotional intelligence, it is important to understand t
o what extent can we understand the emotion and/or emotional intelligence in other beings
"Words cannot express quite a lot of feelings, whereas a noise or tone or drone or sound, an accordion falling down a staircase, can somehow capture an emotion much better. "
John Lydon

throughout this presentation, I have examined emotion from a purely scientific and analytical perspective. Emotion is specific to each individual and often it cannot be examined through reasoning, and must be examined through imagination and sense perception.
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