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Transcript of Research Methods
November 28th, 2012
Western Michigan University
SWRK 6400: Rick Grinnell
of an Intervention to Increase the Suitability of a Father’s Sex Educator Role with His Pre-Adolescent Children
Where are we going?
Out of all high school students in the United States, 47% have already had sexual intercourse. 6% of these individuals started having sex before the age of 13
Where do children learn about sex?
Child Human Sexuality Information Influence Chart
Only 22 states have a state mandate requiring schools to teach sex education and HIV education.
Michigan state law does not require schools to teach sex education but does require HIV/AIDS education
Leaving a significant GAP between sex education taught in schools and onset of sexual behavior.
It is important for parents to be involved in this process so that their children can grow up to make healthy sexual choices as they reach adulthood.
Teen Birth Rates in the United States by Race
Teen Birth Rates in the United States
what do you notice?
Teen Birth Rates Compared Internationally
Teen Birth Rate per 1,000 women age 15-19
Why is this significant?
Cost of Teen Childbearing in Michigan
National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, The. (2012). Counting it up: The public costs of teen pregnancy. Retrieved from http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/costs/default.aspx.
In 2008, federal and state taxpayers spent an estimated 10.8 billion dollars.
These associated costs come from healthcare, child welfare, increased incarceration, and a loss of tax returns.
Mainly focuses on mothers as sex educator/communicator in the family
Focus on perceptions of the adolescent, typically aged 13-15 or 19-21, and provide them with the intervention
Many involve African Americans or Hispanics (due to higher pregnancy
Few studies in this area focus on fathers or on sons
This study will…
Focus on fathers as the sex educator.
Focus on fathers with pre-adolescent children (aged 9-12 or grades 4-7).
Focus on providing fathers with the necessary knowledge, skills, and age appropriate language to enhance their Sex Educator role.
(H1) Fathers who receive the three sessions will increase their role as sex educator for their children than those fathers who did not receive the three sessions.
(H2) Fathers who receive the three sessions will have increased their human sexuality knowledge than those who did not receive the three sessions.
(H3a) Fathers who receive the three sessions will have a better perception of the quality of human sexuality communication between them and their children than the fathers who did not receive the intervention.
(H3b) The children of the fathers who received the three sessions will have a better perception of the quality of human sexuality communication between them and their fathers than the children of the fathers who did not receive the intervention.
(H4) Fathers who receive the three sessions will increase their use of age appropriate language when communicating human sexuality with their children than the fathers who did not receive the three sessions.
(H5) The three sessions given to the treatment group will be more effective than no intervention at all.
The research design is a randomized pretest-post-test control group design or a classical experimental design.
Data Collection Plan
Threats to internal and external validity
History and Maturation – Control group
Testing Effects – pretest may affect post test, but splitting up knowledge instrument (due to length and easily recalled) and tests are not back to back. 3, 12, 24 months follow – up. Possible that timing is too short
Instrumentation Error – Age appropriate instrument is newly created, thus not standardized. Administration of follow ups occur in home, which can affect responses
Differential Selection of Research Participants – randomly selected from SW Michigan, and randomly assigned to groups, but not generalizable to other areas (Specificity of Variables)
Mortality – some participants may drop out. There are incentives for attending sessions and for filling out follow-up instruments
Reactive Effects of Research Participants – just knowing they are participating in the study effects results. Can’t really control for that.
Pretest-treatment Interaction – respondents could react differently to sessions and follow-up instruments
Multiple-treatment Interference – 3 different session topics interfere with one another. More time between sessions could combat this.
Recommendations for Future Studies
Could include both parents, first with mother father, then with LGBT parents.
Could study the effect intervention has the the children themselves. Measured by age of intercourse/prevalence of HIV, STDs or pregnancy
Could focus on father and son (not many studies are done with sons)
Could be done with just Hispanics or African Americans
Could focus on father and daughter
Could incorporate parent, child, and school components.
Is the information factual?