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Native American History

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Ivy Kilpatrick

on 24 April 2014

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Transcript of Native American History

3 Choices
Assimilation
- By the 1860's, government set up 48 "day schools" near reservations
Taught English culture; to sing hymns, Christianity, speak English
- Parents taught Native American culture which eliminated schooling
- Late 1870's, reformers tried a new experiment; reservation boarding
More separation from parents, the more effective the teachings
- Military style regimentation; awake at 5:45am, less than hour free time, in bed by 9pm
- Students were prohibited from speaking native languages or leaving (physical consequences)
Relocation
- Jackson became president 1828; Indian Removal Act 1830
- John Ross fought legally for the Cherokee Indians with little support in Congress or the White House. Went to Supreme Court; in support of the Indians but Jackson ignored the ruling
- Tribes were forced to move to Oklahoma; treacherous journey, bitter winter, about 16,000 casualties [Trail of Tears]
- 1952 Urban Indian Relocation Program; designed to entice reservation dwellers to major urban cities for better jobs
Native American History
- Native Americans lived off the land
- Helped Europeans survive by growing crops, hunting, etc.
- Europeans began to colonize America in the 16th century
- Many Native Americans died from European illness & deadly attack
- Europeans brought
their materialistic worldview (private ownership)
(communal; not to be owned)
Assimilation
Relocation
Genocide
California Genocide
- In 1769, missionary Junipero Serra led a Spanish army & built 21 missions. Set out to convert all Native Americans to Christianity
As well as slaves to the farms supporting the missions
- Spanish soldiers kidnapped thousands; given Spanish clothes, Spanish names, and blue uniforms and became farm workers
- From high pop. of 300,000, Indians in California reach a low of 16,000 in 1900.
Legality
- Treaty of Paris 1783; gave the U.S. claim to all Indian land east of the Mississippi River by right of conquest
- Cherokee Law Against Land Sales 1820; a capital offense to sell Cherokee land without consent of the national council
- Indian Removal Act 1830; President could grant land west of Mississippi River to tribes that gave up homelands, Trail of Tears
- Worcester v. Georgia 1832; Cherokees are a separate nation, subject only to authority of the federal government
- Indian Reorganization Act 1934; Roosevelt's New Deal tried to reform Indian affairs, slow land grab, gain tribal sovereignty
- Indian Civil Rights Act 1968; gave most protections of the Bill of Rights and 14th Amendment to tribal members & amended the Major Crimes Act to include assault resulting in bodily harm
- American Indian Movement; formed an "Indian Patrol" to monitor police activities in Indian neighborhoods
"[Long hair] was the pride of all Indians. The boys, one by one, would break down and cry when they saw their braids thrown on the floor. All of the buckskin clothes had to go and we had to put on the clothes of the White Man. If we thought the days were bad, the nights were much worse. This is when the loneliness set in, for it was when we knew that we were all alone. Many boys ran away from the school because the treatment was so bad, but most of them were caught and brought back by the police."
- Lone Wolf of the Blackfoot tribe
Sources
http://www.shmoop.com/native-american-history/timeline.html
http://nativeamericannetroots.net/diary/958
http://www.pbs.org/indiancountry/history/index.html
http://www.questia.com/library/history/united-states-history/native-american-history/assimilation-american-indians
http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-timeline.html
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