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Biology Chapter 10 Section 2 Cell Division

Miller Levine Dragonfly Book
by

Mark Meredith

on 30 August 2015

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Transcript of Biology Chapter 10 Section 2 Cell Division

Cell Cycle and Division
END OF SECTION
Chromosomes
During mitosis, “sister” chromatids separate from one another during
telophase.
interphase.
anaphase.
metaphase.
10-2
Cytokinesis usually occurs
at the same time as telophase.
after telophase.
during interphase.
during anaphase
10-2
The phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell is
prophase.
metaphase.
anaphase.
telophase.
10-2
During
cytokinesis
, the cytoplasm pinches in half.

Each
daughter cell
has an identical set of duplicate chromosomes
Cytokinesis
Events of the Cell Cycle
The G2 Phase (Second Gap Phase)
organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced
Once G2 is complete, the cell is ready to start the M phase—Mitosis
Events of the Cell Cycle
During the S phase,
DNA synthesis takes place (DNA is copied)


Once a cell enters the S phase, it usually completes the rest of the cell cycle.
Events of the Cell Cycle
The cell cycle consists of four phases:
G1
(First Gap Phase)
S Phase
G2
(Second Gap Phase)
M Phase
The Cell Cycle
During the cell cycle:
a cell grows
prepares for division
divides to form two daughter cells, each of which begins the cycle again
The Cell Cycle
The
cell cycle
is the series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.

Interphase
is the period of growth that occurs
between cell divisions
.
The Cell Cycle
Genetic information is passed from one generation to the next on
chromosomes
.

Before cell division, each chromosome is duplicated, or copied.
Chromosomes
DNA replication takes place during the
S phase of the cell cycle.
G1 phase of the cell cycle.
G2 phase of the cell cycle.
M phase of the cell cycle.
10-2
The series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide is called
the cell cycle.
mitosis.
interphase.
cytokinesis.
10-2
Telophase
Chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shape.

A new nuclear envelope forms around each cluster of chromosomes.
Mitosis
Individual
chromosomes
Anaphase
Is the third phase of mitosis.

The sister chromatids
separate
into individual chromosomes.
Mitosis
Mitosis
Biologists divide the events of mitosis into four phases: (
PMAT
)
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Mitosis (M Phase)
During G1, the cell
increases in size
synthesizes new proteins and organelles
Events of the Cell Cycle
When the cell divides, the
chromatids separate
.
Each new cell gets one chromatid.
Chromosomes
Cell Division
In eukaryotes, cell division occurs in two major stages.

The first stage, division of the cell nucleus, is called
mitosis
.

The second stage, division of the cell cytoplasm, is called
cytokinesis
.
10-2 Cell Division
Cell plate
Cell wall
In
plants
, a structure known as the
cell plate
forms midway between the divided nuclei.
Cytokinesis in Plants
Spindle
Centriole
Metaphase
The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.

Spindle microtubules connect the centromere of each chromosome.
Mitosis
Chromosomes
(paired chromatids)
Centromere
Spindle
forming
Mitosis
Centromere
Sister chromatids
Chromosomes
Each duplicated chromosome consists of two identical
“sister” chromatids
.

Each pair of chromatids is attached at an area called the
centromere
.
Why is duplication necessary?
Draw and label a chromosome.
Prophase
Chromatin (DNA) condenses into chromosomes.

The nuclear envelope breaks down.
Full transcript