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The Fight Against Slavery

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Kevin Martinez

on 3 June 2014

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Transcript of The Fight Against Slavery

Why It Matters
Since colonial times, some americans opposed slavery.
They condemned slavery on religious and moral grounds.
In the mid-1800s, the reforming spirit spurred a vigorous new effort to end slavery.
Roots of the Antislavery Movement
Growing Opposition to Slavery
Growing Opposition to Slavery Cont.1
Garrison Cont.2
Co-founded the New England Anti-Slavery Society.
Later became the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Leaders included Theodore Weld, a minister who had been a pupil of Charles Finney.
Weld brought the zeal of a religious revival to antislavery rallies.
Other members included Sarah and Angelina Grimke, daughters of a South Carolina slaveholder.
African American Abolitionists
Prominent African Americans in the North took a leading role in the abolitionist movement.
In 1829, David Walker published his Appeal: to the Coloured Citizens of the World.
Urged enslaved people to rebel, if necessary, to gain their freedom.
Frederick Douglass - The most powerful speaker for abolitionism.
Born into slavery.
Broke the law by reading.
Escaped to freedom in the North.
Encouraged to describe his experiences by Garrison and other abolitionists.
"I appear this evening as a thief and a robber. I stole this head, these limbs, this body from my master, and ran off with them."
Risked being sent back into slavery by speaking.
Continued speak to larger audiences.
Published antislavery newspaper.
Opposing Abolition
The Underground Railroad
A number of prominent leaders of the early republic opposed slavery.
Alexander Hamilton
Benjamin Franklin
Slavery violated most basic principle of the Declaration of Independence, "that all men are created equal."
Slavery Ends in the North
1780
Pennsylvania - First state to pass a law that gradually eliminated slavery.
1804
Every northern state ended or pledged to end slavery.
Congress also outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory.
When Ohio entered the Union in 1803, became first state to ban slavery in its state constitution.
Second Great Awakening inspired further opposition to slavery.
Preaching of Charles Finney, who condemned slavery, influenced many people.
By mid-1800s, a small, but growing number of people were abolitionists.
Abolitionists - Reformers who wanted to abolish, or end, slavery
Rejecting gradual emancipation, abolitionists called for a complete and immediate end to slavery.
Garrison
William Lloyd Garrison - One of the most forceful voices for abolition.
Strongly apposed the use of violence to end slavery.
Was more radical than many others. Favored full political rights for all African Americans.
In 1831, Garrison launched an abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator.
Became the nation's leading antislavery publication for 34 years, only ending when slavery itself ended.
Roots of the Antislavery Movement Cont.1
The Colonization Movement
The American Colonization Society.
Established in 1817.
An early antislavery organization.
Proposed that slaves be freed gradually and transported to Liberia.
Liberia - a colony founded in 1822 on the west coast of Africa.
Movement did not work, most enslaved people had to grow up in the United States and did not have the desire to leave.
By 1830 only about 1,400 African Americans had migrated to Liberia.
Growing Opposition to Slavery Cont.2
A Former President Takes a Stand
Abolitionist won the support of a few powerful people
Former President John Quincy Adams.
Member of Congress
Read anti-slavery petitions from the floor of the House of Representatives.
1839: Proposed a constitutional amendment that would ban slavery from any new state that joined the union.
Not passed
Two years later, made a drastic stand against slavery.
Captive Africans aboard the
Amistad
, a slave ship, had rebelled.
Killed the captain and ordered the crew to go back to Africa.
At 79, spoke to the Supreme Court for nine hours and helped the captives regain their freedom.

The Fight Against Slavery
Important Terms and People
Abolitionist: Reformers who wanted to abolish, or end, slavery.
William Lloyd Garrison: One of the most forceful voices for abolition.
Frederick Douglass: The most powerful speaker for abolitionism.
Harriet Tubman: Escaped from slavery and escorted more than 300 people to freedom by the Underground Railroad.
Some courageous abolitionists dedicated themselves to help people escape from slavery
They established a system known as the underground railroad
It was a network of people, black and white.
It was a network of Northerners and Southerners
The network was to secretly help slaves reach freedom
Working for the Underground Railroad was illegal and dangerous
Conductors led fugitive slaves from one "station" to another
Stations were usually homes of abolitionists
They might also be churches and caves
Supporters helped by donating clothes, food or money for the passages on trains and boats
Many people risked their lives to help runaway slaves
Levi Coffin, an Indiana Quaker helped over 3,000 fugitives
Harriet Tubman who had herself escaped from slavery, escorted more than 300 people to freedom via the Underground Railroad
Tubman's nickname was "The Black Moses"
She got named after the Biblical Leader who led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt
She proudly told Frederick Douglas that in all 19 passages to the south she never lost a single passenger
Slave Owners would give anyone who captured her $40,000
Each year hundreds of slaves moved along the underground railroad to freedom in the north or in Canada.
In total about 50,000 people gained their freedom this way
Abolitionists faced very powerful obstacles in the north and the south.
North
Many northerners profited from the existence of slavery.
Northern textile mill owners and merchants depended on southern slave labor for cotton.
Feared slaves would come to the north and take jobs.
Fears sometime prompted violence towards abolitionists.
Mobs attacked antislavery meetings
In 1835, William Lloyd Garrison was dragged trough the streets of Boston with a rope around his neck
Support for Abolition grew more and more so they went on the offensive
In the state of Georgia they payed $5,000 for the arrest and conviction for libel of William Lloyd Garrison
Southerners in congress won a "Gag Rule" that blocked discussions of antislavery petitions
Full transcript