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Transcript of Circulatory System
General Properties of Circulatory System
Three Basic Components:
A circulatory fluid
, set of
, and a
muscular pump, the heart
The heart powers the circulation by using
metabolic energy to elevate the hydrostatic pressure of the circulatory fluid,
which flows through the vessels and back to the heart.
The circulatory system
connects the aqueous environment of the body cells to the organs that exchange gases, absorb nutrients, and dispose of wastes.
Open/Closed Circulatory Systems
Open Circulatory System
the circulatory fluid bathes the organs directly.
This fluid is called
Contraction of one or more hearts pumps the hemolymph through the circulatory vessels into the interconnected sinuses,
Within the sinuses
chemical exchange occurs between the hemolymph and the body cells.
Large crustaceans, molluscs, arthropods
Closed Circulatory System-
confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid.
circulatory fluid (blood)
One or could be more pumps then pump blood into large vessels that branch into smaller ones that infiltrate the organs.
Annelids, Cephalopods, and all Vertebrates
carry blood away from heart to organs thought the body..
Arteries branch into
, small vessels that convey blood to the capillaries.
are microscopic vessels with thin porous walls.
Network of these vessels is called
Capillaries converge into
that converge with
, which carry blood back to the heart
The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs (there it loads O2 and unloads CO2). Oxygen rich blood from the lungs enters the heart at the left atrium and is pumped to the body tissues by the left ventricle. Blood then returns to the heart through the right atrium.
Heartbeat originates with impulses at the sinoatrial (SA) node, (pacemaker) of the right atrium.
The Mammal Heart!
Quick Overview on Blood
connective tissue consisting of cells suspended in a liquid matrix
osmotic regulation, transport, defense
Red blood cells or
White blood Cells or
(clotting) fragments suspended in blood
- iron- containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen
Sickle Cell disease- abnormal form of hemoglobin polymerizes into aggregates, this distorts erythrocytes to resemble a sickle. This leads to blockages and decreased oxygen levels.
If there is damage in the lining of arteries this enhances the deposition of lipids and cells resulting in potential life threatening damage to the heart.
If tissues don't receive enough oxygen the kidneys synthesize and secrete Erythopoietin (EPO) that stimulate the production to deliver oxygen. If there is too much Oxygen then (EPO) falls and erythrocyte production slows.
Anemia- condition which lower-than-normal erythocyte or hemoglobin levels. This lowers the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
uptake of Oxygen
from the environment and
discharge of CO2
to the environment
specialized respiratory surfaces
Skin, gills, tracheae and lungs
In mammals air inhaled through the nostrils passes through the pharynx into the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and dead end alveoli where gas exchange occurs.
More on Lungs
Lung increases as the rib muscles and diaphragm contract
ventilate by negative pressure breathing (pulls air in lungs)
Breathing is the mechanism by which mammals ventilate their lungs (bring air in and out).
transport O2 - this increases the amount of O2 that blood or hemolymph can carry
which helps transport CO2 and O2 and buffering the blood
when CO2 is greater hemoglobin releases O2
carbonate/carbonic acid buffer
Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is a weak acid and is therefore in equilibrium with bicarbonate (HCO3-) When both carbonic acid and bicarbonate are present, a buffer is formed.
more bicarbonate present than carbonic acid
With all the acids your body produces such as lactic acid this buffer counteracts
- condition in which the pH of the blood is above normal. The
increase in pH
is often caused by
, When a person hyperventilates they exhale more carbon dioxide than normal. As a result the
carbon dioxide concentration in the blood is reduced.
(excessively shallow breathing) person does not expel enough carbon dioxide and has
elevated blood carbon dioxide levels. pH levels rise
Interaction between the two systems
"Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Working Together." YouTube. YouTube, 08 Dec. 2012. Web. 05 Mar. 2014.
Asthma A to Z - The Human Respiratory System." Asthma A to Z - The Human Respiratory System. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2014.
"Blood Buffer - Treating Alkalosis/Acidosis." Blood Buffer - Treating Alkalosis/Acidosis. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2014.
http://sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/humanheart.html "Animation." Animation. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2014.
Mr. W. "Circulatory System Rap (Pump It Up!)." YouTube. YouTube, 22 July 2012. Web. 05 Mar. 2014.
"Circulation & Respiration." Circulation & Respiration. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2014
Feed Back Mechanisms
increase in heart rate and respiratory rate which occurs in response to increased exercise or other increased muscle cell activity
controlled via a bio-feedback loop in which special receptors located in the brain known as chemo-receptors monitor blood oxygen levels
if oxygen levels fall, the chemo-receptors sense falling oxygen levels and the brain sends electrical signals with increasing frequency to the heart. This causes the heart to beat faster
when the oxygen levels rise the heart starts to relax and beat slower