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Atomic Theory Timeline

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Nariel Tribble

on 3 September 2014

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Transcript of Atomic Theory Timeline

Birth- August 26, 1743 (Paris, France)
Death- May 8, 1794 (Paris, France)
Education-College Mazarin
Occupation-Chemist

Antoine Lavoisier
Atomic Theory Timeline
Birth- September 6, 1766 (Eaglesfield, United Kingdom)
Death- July 26, 1844 (Manchester, United Kingdom)
Education- Quaker School (Age 12)
John Fletcher's Quaker Grammar School
New College in Manchester
John Dalton
Birth- November 23, 1887 (Weymouth, Dorset, England)
Death-August 10, 1915 (Gallipoli, Turkey)
Education- Trinity College
Occupation- Physicist

Henry Moseley
Birth- October20, 1891 (Manchester, England)
Death-July 24, 1974 (Cambridge, Cambridgeshire)
Education- University of Manchster, University of Cambridge
Occupation-Physicist
James Chadwick
Discovered by- Ernest Rutherford
Hans Geiger
Ernest Marsden

Birth- September 26,1754 (Angers, France)
Death- July 5, 1826 (Angers, France)
Education- University of Salamanca (Professor)
Occupation- Chemist
Joseph Proust
Birth- October 7,1885 (Copenhagen, Denmark)
Death- November 18, 1962 (Copenhagen, Denmark)
Education- Gammelholm Grammar School (Elementary)
Copenhagen University(1922)
Occupation- Physicist, Scientist
Niels Bohr
Birth- August 12, 1887 (Vienna, Austria)
Death- January 4, 1961 (Vienna, Austria)
Education-Home school (until 11), University of Vienna, Akademisches Gymnasium
Occupation-Scholar, Physicist, Scientist
Erwin Schrodinger
Dmitri Mendeleev
Democritus
Ernest Rutherford
J. J. Thomson
Robert A. Millikan
Gold Foil Experiment
Cathode Ray Tube Experiment
Oil Drop Experiment
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
Periodic Law
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Plum Pudding Atomic Model
Quantum Mechanical Model
Rutherford Model
Bohr Planetary Model
By: Nariel Tribble
1st August 29,2014

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures was founded when he conducted experiments on gases. The law explains that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gases of the mixture. (1803)
Colorblindness or "Daltonism" was discovered by Dalton when using his own eye tissue to find the cause of colorblindness. It was discovered that his photoreceptor in his eye was missing the color green.
Dalton also had his own atomic theory where he believed atoms of different elements could be distinguished based on the the atom's atomic weight. Also explained that atoms in a compound are compound atoms that have the same size and weight but each element looks and is different from each other.
Award(s) & Year award(s) were given-
Discovery & Year-
Occupation- Meteorologist, Educator, Scholar, Chemist, Scientist, and Journalist
Royal Medal,
Doctorate of Laws from Edinburgh University(1834)
Doctorate of Science Degree from Oxford university(1822),
Birth- December 18, 1856 (Cheetham, Manchester, England)
Death- August 30, 1940 (Cambridge, England)
Education- Owens College (14), Trinity College
Occupation- Academic, Physicist, Scientist

The Gold Foil Experiment was used to examine and see the effect of alpha particles on matter
They conducted previous experiments that helped them consider the mass and speed in advance.
They hypothesized that the particles would go through a thin sheet of metal fool, and that some of these particles would scatter lightly because of the charge in the metal atom's subatomic particles
They also believed that once the alpha particles hit the metal sheet that it would emit a flash of light.
In conclusion only a small percentage were deflected while a great majority passed through the thin metal sheet. they also concluded that the mass of an atom was concentrated at the center.
Discovery & Year-
Thomson discovered what we call electrons or "corpuscles". He believed electrons were tiny particles that all matte was made up of. (1897)
Later Thomson started studying positive charge ions where he discovered that Neon has two different atoms. This helped him discover isotopes in a stable environment. (1912)
He also made the Plum- Pudding Model that described the inner structure of atoms.
Award(s) & Year award(s) were given-
Nobel Prize in Physics (1906)
Discovery & Year-
First to discover that electrons are in separate orbits that travel around the nucleus. of an atom. Also determined that the number of electrons help determine the properties of a element.
Helped discover the Liquid Droplet Theory. This theory gives an accurate description and presentation of atom's nucleus.
Discovered the Quantum Theory which explains that an electron can be view in two different ways.
1) As a particle
2) As a wave
but not at the same time. (1933 and 1962)
Award(s) & Year award(s) were given-
Nobel prize in Physics on Atomic Structure (1922)
Also created the Atomic Structure Model that we still use today.
Award(s) & Year award(s) were given-
Nobel Prize in Physics (1933)
Discovery & Year-
Schrodinger created a wave equation known as the "Schrodinger's Equation" for the movement of electrons.
Improved the Quantum Theory by experimenting and creating different theories about electrons. The biggest theory was that the movements of electrons could be determined in wave mechanics rather than particle leaps.
Schrodinger's Equation are wave functions that determine the movement of small particles. It also determines how the waves are changed by any physical outer influences.
(theory discovered in his late 30s)
Birth- February 8, 1834(Tobolsk, Russia)
Death- February 2, 1907 (St. Petersburg, Russia)
Education-University of St. Petersburg, University of Heidelberg, Main Pedagogical Institute
Occupation-Academic, Chemist, Scientist
Discovery & Year-
Award(s) & Year award(s) were given-
Mendeleev discovered the Periodic Table which is something that use to this very day.
Mendeleev noticed patterns between different element groups. He used his existing knowledge of elements and physical properties to but everything together into a huge table.
Arranged the already known elements by their atomic weight and by following that system he was able to predict more elements for the periodic table. (1860s)
Honorary Awards from Oxford and Cambridge
Medal from Royal Society of London
Birth-August 30, 1871 (Spring Grove, New Zealand)
Death- October 19, 1937
Education-Nelson Collegiate School, Canterbury College
Occupation- Physicist, Scientist
Discovery & Year-
Award(s) & Year award(s) were given-
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1908)
Knighted (1914)
President of the Institute of Physics (1931)
Discovered alpha and beta particles after doing research and experiments about ion-producing radiations.
Rutherford and Fredrick Soddy also announce the disintegration theory of radioactivity. Theory explained that radioactive energy was emitted from within an atom. Also that alpha and beta particles were emitted at the same exact time which then caused a chemical change across elements.
Another discovery on how to induce a nuclear reaction in a stable environment. This became his main focus later in his life.
Definition-
The principle that in any closed system subjected to no external forces, the mass is constant irrespective of its changes in form; the principle that matter cannot be created or destroyed. (1880 - 1885)
Discovered- The Law of Conservation of Mass was discovered by Antoine Lavoisier around 1785.
Definition-
Every definite compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions by weight. 1830
Discovery-
The law of Definite Proportions is sometimes called Proust's Law. It was discovered around 1797.
Definition-
When two elements combine in more than proportion to form two or more compounds the weights of one element that combine with a given weight of the other element are in the ratios of small whole numbers.
Discovery-
The Law of Multiple Proportions was discovered by John Dalton around 1803.
Definition-
The elements when arranged in the order of their atomic numbers show a periodic variation of atomic structure and of most of their proportions.
Discovery-
The Periodic Law was discovered by Mendeleev around 1869, and is sometimes called the Mendeleev's law.
The Plum-Pudding Model was created by J. J. Thomson. The model was abandoned in 1911 in favor for Rutherford's atomic model.
Described that the atoms were spheres of positively charged matter where the origin of the electron was.
The Quantum Mechanical Model explains the behavior of electrons. Also a mathematical description of the nature of energy and matter.
The Quantum Mechanical Model was developed by many scientists some being Niels bohr, Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrodinger, etc.
Rutherford's Model described that an atom is a tiny, positively charged core which is called a nucleus. Also that the mass is concentrated just barely and negatively charged particles, electrons, circle around the nucleus at a distance.
Sometimes it is called the nuclear atom model or the planetary model of the atom. This was created around the year of 1911.
Bohr's Planetary Model describes electrons to orbit around the nucleus of an atom at a distance. Once the electron changes orbit it will then have a sudden quantum leap. Energy between the first and final orbits are emitted in bundles of electromagnetic radiation called photons.
This model was created around 1913 and was said to have overcome some flaws from Rutherford's model.
Discovered by- Robert A. Millikan (1909)
With this experiment is helped determine the size of an electron's charge.
Procedure-
Put a charge on a tiny drop of oil
Measured how strong an applied electric field had to be to get the oil drop from falling.
He could work out the mass of the oil drop
Calculate the force of gravity on one drop
Determine the electric charge that the drop had
The charge on a drop was always a multiple of -1.6 x 10-19C
Discovered- J. J. Thomson (1897)
On his third attempt he decided to examine the nature of the particles. Thomson later found out that the charge to mass ration was to large. This led him to believe that the particles carried a huge charge or were a thousand times smaller than a hydrogen ion.
Believed that the cathode rays were made of particles from within the atom themselves.
On his first experiment Thomson built a cathode ray tube with a metal cylinder at the end. The cylinder had two cuts in it which then lead to electrometers that would measure the electric charges. This concluded that the negative charge and the ray we intertwined.
On his second experiment he created a second ray with a fluorescent coating at one end and then a near perfect vacuum. Halfway were two electrical plates this producing a positive anode and a negative cathode.
They rays were deflected as he hoped proving that the rays were charged particles with a negative charge.
Discovery & Year-
Lavoisier discovered the Law of Conservation of Mass. This law states that matter cannot be created nor destroyed.
Also talks a little on the rearrangement of matter in reactions. Matter rearranged, but it never disappeared.
He is also known for his Oxygen theory of Combustion which was similar to the Phlogiston Theory, but gained more evidence. (Early 1770s until 1785)
Founder of the modern science of chemistry
Discovery & Year-

Proust created the Law of Definite Proportions, and this law has become the fundamental principle of analytical chemistry.(1793)
Discovered each pure compound had its own elemental composition.
Elected into French Academy of Sciences (1816)
Award(s) & Year award(s) were given-
The Law of Definite Proportions is sometimes called Proust's Law.
Award(s) & Year award(s) were given-
Nobel Prize for Physics (1935)
Discovery & Year-
Series of experiments prove whether a subatomic particle with no charge existed and at first he failed.
Later he recognized certain properties of radiation thanks to other scientists discoveries which led him to conduct even more experiments.
Later he proved that a particle with no charge did in fact exist and thus the neutron was discovered. To this discovery the main parts of an atom were complete.
Birth- March 22. 1868 (Morrison, Illinois)
Death- December 19, 1953 (San Marino, California)
Education- Oberlin College, Columbia University
Occupation-Educator, Physicist, Scientist
Discovery & Year-
Created the Oil Drop Experiment and with this experiment he determined the standard charge of an electron.
He determined that an electron's charge was a discrete constant not a statistical average.
Award(S) & Year award(s) were given-
Nobel Prize for Physics (1923)
Also did work on the Photoelectric effect .
Birth- c.460 BC
Death-c.370 BC
Education-
Occupation- Greek Philosopher
Discovery & Year-
Democritus wrote about how all things are composed of atoms. He described them as small, indestructible particles or pure matter.
Wrote that atoms were solids, had no internal structure, and different size, shape, and weight.
Democritus helped us understand the basic atomic theory. He gave us a little understanding on the building blocks of matter.
Discovery & Year-
Constant experiments he found the frequencies of corresponding lines in the X-ray spectra.
Figured that there were three elements between aluminum and gold we did not know about. He also figured out there were 92 elements up and 14 rare- earth elements.
Created Moseley's law which states that the square root of the frequencies of lines in atomic x-ray spectra depends linearly on the atomic number of the emitting atom.
Award(s) & Year award(s) were given-
Nobel Prize for Physics (1916) would have been his award if he did not die in action.
Introduction
This presentation will consist of many brilliant contributers to the history of science. Thanks to scientists, experiments, laws, and models we have the technology and knowledge about our world.
Summary
Major findings did come from all scientists and each scientist built their knowledge off of each other to find out what they needed in their research. When finding research for some of the major contributors to the atomic theory I learned that mankind has come a long way. To start out with Democritus from 460 BC who only had an idea of atoms to now having a model on what atoms look like and what they consist of is just amazing.

Dalton's Atomic Theory explains an element is one of a kind because all atoms of the element are identical. All elements are different due to different masses.
Dalton's theory also states that chemic reactions are part of the rearrangement of the combinations of atoms. His theory was also the general information of atoms.
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