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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

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by

Alia Najiha

on 11 February 2014

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Transcript of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

By :



Alia Najiha bt Khairon Zamani
SCIENTIFIC
CLASSIFICATION
Kingdom
:
Bacteria
Phylum
:
Proteobacteria
Class
:
Gammaproteobacteria
Order
:
Xanthomonadales
Family
:
Xanthomonadaceae
Genus
:
Stenotrophomonas
Species
:
S. maltophilia
HISTORY
1981
:
Pseudomonas maltophilia
1983
:
Xanthomonas maltophilia
1993
:
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

CHARACTERISTICS
Gram-negative bacillus
Aerobic
Non-fermentative
Motile
(two or more polar flagella)
Smaller than other members of the genus ;
S. acidaminiphila, S. rhizophila, S. koreensis
HABITAT
Soil
Water
Sewage
Contaminated medical devices :
catheters
breathing tubes
Contaminated medical solutions :
saline rinse solutions
humidifier water
PATHOGENESIS
An
opportunistic
pathogen and
direct agent
of disease.
Cause
secondary infections
that aggravate human pathological conditions.
Individuals with existing conditions who are at highest risk :
cystic fibrosis
immunosuppression
organ transplantation
chemotherapy
prior broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy
intact immune system

(contaminated wound or infected catheter)
presence of
indwelling catheter

and
respiratory therapy equipment
Has ability to colonise
respiratory-tract epithelial cells, surface of medical devices
and also
contaminated water.
Infection is usually facilitated by the presence of
prosthetic material (plastic or metal)
from the medical devices.
Can lead to
nosocomial infections.
The infections are associated with
high morbidity
and
mortality rates.
Can cause :
blood-stream infections
pneumoniae
urinary tract infection
meningitis
endocarditis
wound infections
MODE OF
TRANSMISSION
Direct entry into the body which is through :
ingesting
bathing
contaminated surgical instruments
Implantation of contaminated medical devices
Indirect contact from contaminated surfaces via health workers' hands.
Colonization of the oropharynx from tap water.
LABORATORY
DIAGNOSIS
S. maltophilia
isolates are obtained from patients' specimens such as :
respiratory tract secretions
wounds
urine
catheter
blood
CSF
vaginal secretions
Gram Stain
MacConkey agar
(24 hours)
(48 hours)
tiny pinpoints
NLF
pigmented colonies
white to pale yellow
glistening
entire margin
has distinct NLF colonies
has turned an alkaline tan colour
Blood agar
rough
dull yellow, dark tan
or
lavender-green
colonies (depends on
the age of colonies
and
incubation conditions)
ammonia odour
greenish discolouration
underneath growth
(NOT alpha-hemolysis)
Oxidase test
:
Negative
Catalase test
:
Positive
Citrate

:
Positive
Methyl-red

:

Negative
Motility test

:

Positive
Indole

:

Positive
Glucose
:
Weak oxidizer (late/negative)
Maltose
:
Strong oxidizer (produce acid)
Lactose

:

Negative
Sucrose

:
Positive
Lysine decarboxylase
:
Positive

DNase medium
has ability to produce
exoenzymes
called deoxyribonuclease or DNase that
hydrolyzes DNA

clear zone
Mueller-Hinton agar
Cultivation 72 hours
28 C
aerobic condition
ANTIBIOTIC
SENSITIVITY
lack of an inhibitory zone around
Imipenem (IPM 10)
the
pear-shaped
zone of inhibition reflecting the synergy between
sulphafurazole (SF 300)
and
trimethoprim (W 5)
the
numerous resistant colonies
within
timentin (TIM 85)
and
aztreonam (ATM 30)
inhibitory zones.
Resistant to :
B-lactam agent
aminoglycosides
quinolones
carbapenems
Susceptible to :
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT)
minocycline
ticarcillin-clavulanic acid
tetracycline
CASES
PREVENTION
Avoidance of inappropriate antibiotic use
Disinfection and/or sterilization of respiratory therapy equipment
Control the plumbing system environment
Avoidance of prolonged implementation of foreign devices
The reinforcements of hand hygiene practices
Full transcript