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Lewis Structures and Shapes

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Ally Balaz

on 10 October 2012

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Transcript of Lewis Structures and Shapes

Allyson and Angelica Lewis Structures and Shapes 1) 4 + 6(2) = 16 total valence e-
2) 8 + 8(2) = 24 ocet e-
3) 24 - 16 =8 bonding e-
4) 8 ÷ 2 = 4 bonds
5) Finished Procedure: CO² O = C = O 6) 16 - 8 = 8 non bonding e- 1) 5 + 1(4) = 8 total valance e-
2) 8 + 4(2) = 16 octet e-
3) 16-8 =8 bonding e-
4) 8 ÷ 2 = 4 bonds
5) Finished Procedure: NH₄+ How to make a Lewis Structure: Molecules with charged atoms and molecules with no charge. Example: CO² Steps in Making a Lewis Structure for Molecules that Contain no Charge: Count the total valence electrons in the molecule. Number of Valence Electrons in Carbon: 4 Number of Valance Electrons in Oxygen: 6 4 + 6(2) = 16 total valence e- Step 1: Figure out how many octet electrons the molecule should have using the octet rule, Step 2: Number of valence electrons for Carbon: 8 Number of valence electrons for Oxygen: 8 8 + 8(2) = 24 octet e- Subtract the valence electrons from octet electrons. (subtract the number found in step #1 for the number found in step #2) The answer you get will be equal to the number of bonding electrons in the molecule. Step 3: Total Valance e- 16 Total Octet e- 24 24 - 16 = 8 bonding e- Divide the number of bonding electrons by two. Step 4: 8 ÷ 2 = 4 bonds Draw an arrangement that contains the number of bonds you found in step #4. Step 5: Handy Rules:
Hydrogen and halogens bond once
The family oxygen bonds twice
The family nitrogen is in bonds three times. So does boron
The family carbon is in bonds four times Find the number of lone pair (nonbonding) electrons by subtracting the bonding electrons (step #3) from the valance electrons (step #1) Arrange these around the atoms until all of them satisfy the octet rule. Step 6: 16 - 8 = 8 non bonding e- 8 bonding e- 16 total valence e- Example NH₄+ Steps in Making a Lewis Structure for Molecules that Contain One or More Charged Atom(s) Step 1: Count the total valence electrons in the molecule. Number of Valance Electrons in Nitrogen: 5 Number of Valence Electrons in Hydrogen: 1 5 + 1(4) - 1 = 8 total valance e- Step 2: Figure out how many octet electrons the molecule should have using the octet rule. Number of valance electrons in Nitrogen: 8 Number of valance electrons in Hydrogen: 1 8 + 4 (2) = 16 octet e- Subtract the valence electrons from octet electrons. (subtract the number found in step #1 for the number found in step #2) The answer you get will be equal to the number of bonding electrons in the molecule. Step 3: Total Valance e- 8 Total Octet e- 16 16 - 8 = 8 bonding e- Divide the number of bonding electrons by two. Step 4: 8 bonding e- 8 bonding e- 8 ÷ 2 = 4 bonds Draw an arrangement that contains the number of bonds you found in step #4. Step 5: Handy Rules:
Hydrogen and halogens bond once
The family oxygen is in bonds one, two or three times
The family nitrogen is in bonds two, three or four times
Boron usually bonds 4 times
The family Carbon is in bonds four times Find the number of lone pair (nonbonding) electrons by subtracting the bonding electrons (step #3) from the valance electrons (step #1) Arrange these around the atoms until all of them satisfy the octet rule: Remember ALL elements EXCEPT hydrogen want eight electrons around them. Hydrogen only wants one. Step 6: 8 bonding valence e- 8 total valence e- 8 - 8 = 0 non bonding e- 6) 8 - 8 = 0 non bonding e-
7) The (+) charge is added to nitrogen To find the charge on each atom, compare the number of electrons that each atom has to the number of valance electrons. For this purpose each bond counts as one electron and each pair counts as two electrons. Step 7: * Since the charge is positive subtract 1 from the total
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