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on 17 June 2014

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Oxidative Phosphorylation
Resynthesizes ATP

Cori Cycle
-removes lactic acid from muscle, converts lactic acid back into glucose.
-passes out of muscle fiber to liver to be metabolized to pyruvix and glucose
Most Efficient
More energy from fats(4.5x carbs), fats can only be broken down with oxygen
High Power Output Activities
Dependent on ATP and CP
short time- Can only produce immediate energy for muscles, 7-12 seconds
Lactic Acid
Impede's production of energy via glycolysis (inhibits proper enzyme formation)( via Hydrogen ions that hamper electrical signal transmission at neuromuscular junction because they compete with calcium for cross bridge bonding sites)
Anaerobic Glycolysis
Breakdown of Glycogen (which is stored in carbs in the muscles) into pyruvix acid and ATP
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Anaerobic Glycosis/ Glycolytic System
Phosphcreatine(PC)/Phosphate System
3 Energy Systems
Immediate Energy
Uses Creatine Phostphate System (CP)-a high energy compound
CP can be broken down into phosphate and creatine
The now free phosphate bonds with ADP to reform (ATP resynthesis) ATP
Large amounts of energy
Rapid rate of recovery
Alactic, anaerobic
Free Phosphate
Free Phosphate
ATP Synthesis from CP
Only until the intramuscular stores of ATP run out
The Basics
ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
Hydrolysis: chemical bind between ATP and its phosphate are broken down (Resynthsis is the recombination- requires energy from food molecule breakdown)
Kilocalorie: energy needed to raise 1,000 grams of water by 1 degree Celsius
Produces very little ATP
Phosphocreatine is a high energy compound in the muscle cell
Lactic Acid System
Produces Limited ATP
Muscular Endurance
Lactic acid system: anarobic glycosis process to release energy in the form of ATP in steps(Uses enzymes-breaks down chemical bonds of glycogen/blood glucose)
Pyruvate: product in last step, converted to lactic acid when one has reached their anaerobic threshold

Glycogen-stored form of carb in muscles and liver
Blood Glucose-circulating form of carb
Carbs-Broken down into (primary source of) glucose
Glycogenesis: process of forming glycogen from glucose
Anaerobic threshold-when lactic acid accumulates in the blood- can be lowered with aerobic system increased effectiveness ( removes lactic acid faster)
Not Power- rate of energy demans is always higher than ability of aerobic system
Ways to decrease lactic Acid
-increased rate of acid diffusion to circulatory system (increase capillary supply to muscles)
-increased muscle blood flow
-increased ability to metabolize lactate in heart, liver, and muslce fibers ( could be from cardiovascular changes: more capillaries, increased blood flow, increased #of blood vessels in muscles( more red blood, greater total volume greater heard efficiency)
short term: 1-2 mins
Long term energy
*most important-primary source of energy
Low blood lactate

For intensive 2-3min, 1/2 from naerobic, 1/2 is from aerobic
Takes place in the
(has enzymes coenzymes and activaters-fuel breakdown, provides large quantities of ATP)
Needs sufficient mitochondria, oxygen, enzymes( that don't limit energy flux through the Krebs cycle-pyruvate acid(glucose, fat, protein) is metabolized
Highly efficient-energy yield, glycogen breakdown, 12x more efficient than anaerobic)
-requires constant Oxygen,
-Slow ATP utilization
-low-mod intensity
4 major effects of training:
1.increased vascularization(deliver of nutrientas and oxygen to muscles)
2.increased in number and size of mitochondria in muscle fibers
3.increased activity of enzymes in aerobic metabolic pathways
4. prefrontal use of fats of glycogen during exercise, saves muscles' limited glycogen store
Heart and lungs
Aerobic power:Maximal rate body can take up oxygen( V02Max-plateau where increased workload cannot be supported by oxygen uptake)
Vo2 prediction: workload +heart rate
Vo2 Absolute: related to muscle mass positively
Vo2 relative: divide absolute by mass
A-VO2 difference-ability of tissues to extract oxygen (an increase may be due to mitochondria increase, enzyme efficiency, or oxygen processing)
Capillarization-can affect curulatory system's ability to place red blood cells close to tissues(shorter diffusions difference)
Deliver oxygen and nutrients, remove CO2 and waste, aid in acid balance
Conduction Zone
Nose & mouth: humidifier, filter
Trachea: adjusts to body temp
Bronchi: R and L
Branchioles: branches in lungs
Terminal Bronchioles: branches
into respiratory zone
Respiratory Zone
Phases of Ventilation
1.ventilation/breathing(inspiration, expiration)
2. gas exchange(air, blood in lungs, and other tissues)
3.Oxygen Utilization(by tissues for cellular respiration
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles(insp:muscles contract, low air pressure, exp:muscles relax, high air pressure)
Alveoli's: gas exchange between air and blood
single layer thick
-surrounded by pulmonary capillaries(Co2
comes OUT of Pulmonary and INTO alveoli's)
(Oxygen goes INTO pulmonary and OUT of Alveoli's)
Effect of Exercise:
removes heat and waste from muslces
-do more less effort
-increased muscle size(increase in ventricle and atria size, and wall thickness-more blood to be pumped, the wall thinkness =more contractility strength and greater emptying.
-increased capillarization(# of capillaries, more surface area, reduced blood and tissue distance, increased diffusion capacity of Oxygen and Co2, ease of nutrient transport)
-the increase in cardiac muscle reduces cardiac disease
-decreased blood pressure, cancer protection, osteropathic protection
-psychological-decrease hormone secretion

muscle cells process oxygen through aerobic metaolism in mitochondria(endurance increases number of mitochondria)
Crythropoiesis:formation of new red blood cells ( occurs with training)
-blood has greater ability to carry more oxygen and decrese thickness(viscosity) of blood; more oxygen to muscles
Bohr Effect:
As body temp increases, hemoglobin has a reduced ability to hold oxygen, more oxygen extraction for muscles (increases CO2 production, and lactic acid concentration)
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