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Institutional Impact of Spanish Rule

History 111 Report - Group 1
by

Ramille Anthony Martinez

on 6 December 2012

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Transcript of Institutional Impact of Spanish Rule

Team 0 + - = 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 c Jose de Basco y Vargas = "despotismo ilustrado"(Enlightened despotism)
= 1780, organized the Real Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pias or Royal Economic Society of the Friends of the Country
= "to form a society of learned and competent persons capable of producing useful ideas"
=introduced "Plan General Economico" Polo means "pulong"
Drafted laborers were either Filipino or Chinese male mestizos (16-60 yrs old) who are obligated to work for 40 days (until 1884 when it was shortened to 15 days)
the laborer will be exempted by paying the "falla" (payment of 1.5 real during the 40-day period) Settling of Spaniards in the Philippines (1565) 1. What did the Spaniards discovered?
2. What is the first thing they did?
3. What do they think of "unbelievers"?
4. What are the changes that occurred in the reduccion? Economic Institutions Collect the Filipinos together in a "reduccion (resettlement) bajo el son de la campana (under the sound of the bell) or bajo el toque de la campana (under the peal of the bell)" for the purpose of "converting Filipinos" Cultural Transformation Acapulco galleon= ("galleon de Manila" or "nao de China")
=between Manila and Acapulco de Juarez, reaching as far as Callao in Peru
= the trip lasted for 200 days, return voyage alone is 70 days Institutional Impact of Spanish Rule The reduccion plan was approved by the Governor-General of the Philippines himself, and is presented by Franciscan Fr. Juan de Plasencia to the Synod of Manila (1532). remontados= "to flee to the hills" cimarrones= "runaways" ladrones monteses = "bad citizen" malhechores= "misbelievers" tulisanes= "bandits" changes Internal External infrastructure
technology
economy
agriculture
government customs
values
religion
language
culture = situation in which a government imposes taxes on a particular group of its citizens, despite the citizens not consenting or having an actual representative deliver their views when the taxation decision was made. Monopolies (rentas estancadas)
Taxation without Representation
Polo y Servicio Personal
Encomiendas: Royal and Private
The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade (1565-1815)
Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country (1780-1895)
Royal Philippine Company (1785-1814)
Infrastructure, Telecommunications, and Public Utilities Development Direct Taxes (personal tribute and income tax)
Indirect Tax (customs duties and bandala) buwis= "tribute"
= (1570) fixed at 8 reales (1 real= 12.5 centavos) or in kind
= till the end of the Spanish period (mid-19th century), it was raised to 15 reales which composes of:
tribute of 10 reales
"diezmos prediales(tithes)" of 1 real
town community chest of 1 real
sanctorum tax (for church support) of 3 reales bandala= (mandala= a round stack of rice stalks to be threshed)
=annual enforced sale of goods
= later abolished in November 1782 in Tondo, Bulacan, Pampanga, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas and Cavite. cedula personal = "personal identity paper"
= everyone, 18 yrs. old and above, are required to pay. Tax Exemptions:
descendants of the Filipino chiefly class such as:
Carlos Lakandula of Manila
Pedro Mojica of Cavite
Rajah Tupas of Cebu
laborers of the arsenal and artillery yard of Cavite
mediquillos "Filipinos who had medical experience but no title" and vaccinators
college and university students of:
Santo Tomas San Jose
San Juan de Letran San Carlos (Cebu) Negative Effects:
upsetting the village economy
forced separation from family
decimation of male population Encomienda= (encomendar "to entrust")
Encomiendero= defend from external incursions; keep peace and order; assist missionaries; had a right to impose tribute 2 kinds of encomiendas:
Royal/Crown "realenga or encomienda de la real corona"
Private "encomienda de particulares" Negative Effects:
Construction over Agriculture
Trade over Agriculture Positive Effects:
Intercultural exchanges between Philippines and America = created on March 10, 1785 by Charles III with a 25-year charted for the purpose of uniting American and Asian commerce.
= the Dutch and English interests saw it as a direct attack on their trade in Asian goods
= also had a stiff competition with Manila-Acapulco Trade
= exclusive for cotton production and weaving, cultivation of black pepper, besides the propagation of silk, indigo and sugar. Transportation System
Ferrocarril de Manila
extended 120 miles to Dagupan (Pangasinan)
only railway line in the Archipelago
operated regularly 4 years before Philippine revolution in 1896.
Compania de los Tranvias de Filipinas
(1885) established in Manila by Jacobo Zobel de Zangroniz and Adolfo Bayo.
(1892) 5 street car service lines (4 horse- drawn and 1 tranvia de vapor (steam-powered) Infrastructure:
Puente Colgante(now Quezon Bridge)
= first suspension bridge in the Far East
= 110 meters long and 7 meters wide
= designed by Gustave Eiffel
= pedestrians were charged by 1 kusing (0.5 centavo) while each horse cost 3 cuartos (2 centavos) and toll charges for vehicles depends on the number of wheels (more wheels, higher rates) Manila Maritime Honkong Barcelona Japan,US and Eurasian countries Yokohama Visayas Mindanao Nippon Yusen Kaisha(1891) Telecommunication:
1872= Manila-Corregidor
1882= Manila-Hongkong
1890= telephone service in Manila
1894= telephone service in Iloilo
1897= Manila-Hongkong Electricity:
1814= lighting system in Manila and suburbs using coconut oil
1880's= changed it to kerosene
1893= La Electricista de Manila Education Transformation Colegio de Ninos (1596)
= an annex to Jesuit Colegio de Manila, founded a year before.
= After 5 years, Colegio de Ninos folded up due to lack of fund Boy's Colleges and Secondary Schools exclusive-for-males colleges:
1589= Colegio Maximo de San Ignacio (became a university in 1962)
1599= College of San Ildefonso (now University of San carlos)
1601= College of San Jose
*1590= College of San Ignacio
*1595= College of Immaculate Conception (now AdMU)
1611= Colegio de Nuestra Senora del Santissimo Rosario (now UST)
1620= Seminario de Ninos Huerfanos de San Pedro y San Pablo (now College of San Juan de Letran) Girl's Schools
first boarding school for Spanish girls= Colegios of Santa Potenciana (1591-1864) and Santa Isabel (1632)
beaterios
beaterios= exclusive for daughters of uppe-class Spaniards; includes:
1684= Beaterio de la Compania de Jesus (now Religious of the Virgin Mary)
1696= Santa Catalina de Sena
1719= San Sebastian de Calumpang (now Santa Rita College)
1740= Santa Rita de Pasig
1750= Santa Rosa Free compulsory Publicly-Supported System
Defects in Education adoption of Hispanic Names modernizing structures
foreign cuisine made local fashion sense Comprazgo
Spanish loan words fiestas honoring saints Social Transformation Assumed "All Filipinos read and write Castillan Letters" (1745) Discovered natives preserving rare native language (1776) 3 earliest books:
Doctrina Christina,en lengua espanola, y tagala
Wu-chi T'ien-chu cheng-chiao chen-ch'uan shih-lu (A Discussion of the Real Traditional Propagation of the True Religion) by Fr. Juan Cobo
Doctrina Christina en letra y lengua china Theocentric Literature such as:
awit (dodecasyllabic quatrain)
corrido (octosyllabic quatrain)
metrical romances
Moro Wars "Visual" such as:
making jewelries
secularized painting
engraving
printmaking
typography Music Filipinos Not Totally Hispanized spirituous liquors (1712-1864)
betel nut (1764)
tobacco (1782-1882)
explosives (1805-1864)
opium (1847) ilaya= upstream ibaba= downstream azotea
=roofless terrace aljibes
=water resorvior cal y canto = lime and mortar 1787 1819 1820 1822 1875 1882 1890's Western musical instruments dances
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