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Ray Musada

on 1 October 2013

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Transcript of TES-PCM

Eutectic solutions also called Phase Change Materials (PCM) are products that store and release thermal energy during the process of melting & freezing (changing from one phase to another ). When such a material freezes, it releases large amount of energy in the form of latent heat of fusion or energy of crystallization. Conversely, when the material is melted, an equal amount of energy is abosrbed from the immediate environment as it changes from solid to liquid.

" Storing
temperature energy for later use in order to bridge the time gap between energy availability and energy use "
Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is the temporary storage of cold energy for later use. It bridges the gap between energy availability and energy use. A thermal storage application may involve a 24 hour or alternatively a weekly or seasonal storage cycle depending on the system design requirements. While the output is always thermal, the input energy may be either thermal or electrical.

For the majority of applications, PCM solutions have to be encapsulated in sealed containers. These containers within the cold room create an artificial load to store cold energy effectively shifting the cooling loads from peak to off peak periods. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) can be applied to any new or existing cold room applications whether secondary refrigeration like Glycol or direct refrigeration like pumped or direct expansion conventional refrigeration systems. PlusICE containers filled with PCM solutions which have operating temperatures between -40degC and 27degC cover all the way from deep freeze to ambient storage and handling applications.

These containers are constructed of blow moulded HDPE and can be filled with any of our PlusICE PCM solutions. When stacked there is a small gap between each container, allowing either air or water to flow easily over the containers while providing a large PCM surface area for heat transfer.

50mm (2”) diameter x 1m (3.28ft) long PCM-filled HDPE tubular design enables them to be stacked effectively in both rectangular and cylindrical tanks either air or water to flow as well as hanging from the ceiling/walls using standard pipe brackets.
By simply running the compressor over night at a lower ambient period , one can save as much as 10-15% electricity consumption due to higher efficiencies of the compressor at lower ambient condition .

Reduced actual kWh electricity consumption coupled with the possible cheap off-peak electricity costs may reduce the overall cold storage annual running costs by as much as 30-40%..
Place the phase change material (PCM) inside the freezer/chiller . It will create a thermal energy storage (TES) , where in excess refrigeration capacity during night time and lower ambient conditions overnight can be utilized to shift during peak load at daytime.

The PCM can be installed inside the freezer by hanging on ceiling or walls using TubeICE or alternatively containers like FlatICE can be placed on pallets and stored within the shelves.
As the cooling load significantly varies over daily or weekly periods, Eutectic TES enables the operator to spread the load over a 24 hour period which in return offers the facility of running the refrigeration machinery during lower night time ambient conditions to charge the Eutectic TES Later during peak load or at daytime peak cooling periods this overnight stored energy can be utilized to top up the compressor load without the need for full load mechanical cooling.

The PCM is a static system , there is no moving parts. It offers a stand-by capability in case of any mechanical failures and offers a maintenance free back up facility
Although one may over cool the stored products to create a small load shifting capability but using the latent heat capacity of the Eutectic TES once can increase the thermal energy storage capacity by as much as 10-15 times for a given volume.
Load shifting provides reliable operati on and lower annual electricity/ energy running costs. Eutectic TES Load shifting also enables to maximi se the use lower of night-time tariffs.

Shifting some of the peak load may enable designers to reduce the main machine size for new installations.

As a retrofit application, the addi tional TES load can increases the system output without any additional machinery.

Reduced machinery size and energy consumption results in significantly reduced direct and indirect CO2 emission.

The large latent heat energy storage provides quicker response in large and sharp loads.

Machinery runs for longer periods wi thout any start / stop and therefore it offers a far more reliable operation.

The overall machinery capacity and TES capacity can be exactly matched to system loads.

In case the main machinery fails, the stored energy can be utilized to handle the system loads, hence, provi ding a degree of back up facility.

What is the life of PCM?
PCM life is limitless as the process is not CHEMICAL like the batteries but only THERMAL

Will PCM give up moisture or dew on its surface and endanger the stored items beneath it (boxes of ice cream/etc)?
No, as long as the temperature inside the cold room will never reach 27degC, the PCM surface will not reach the standard 27degC dew point.

How many hours to charge Phase Change Material (PCM)?
It will take 8 to 10 hours to charge it per cycle (one cycle is from solid-liquid-solid).

How long to use the PCM?
Depends on the shifting method applied.
How is PCM manufactured?
PCMs are manufactured by mixing various chemicals in particular proportions under appropriate environment conditions.
What is the PCM made out of?
PCMs are made from either inorganic chemicals or organic chemicals. They are biodegradable.
What is the form that is it made in? (encapsulated beads, strips, foam, panels)?
PCMs are liquids above their melting point and solids below that. These are encapsulated in different materials such as - HDPE, PP, Multilayer (Nylon /Aluminium) and Stainless Steel containers. Depending on the compatibility characteristics and service temperature we recommend suitable encapsulation material

How do you manipulate the phase change temperature?
By adding different chemicals or altering the proportions of it

Before Introduction of PCM
Test Implementation
After Introduction of PCM
Full transcript