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Congo War

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Jenna Pierce

on 26 May 2011

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Transcript of Congo War

All of the boundaries around the conflict are physical and based on the features of the land. there aren't really any straight lines or geometric boundaries. The eastern border of the DRC is all defined by bodies of water. 1996 - Laurent Kabila took command of forces against the government of Mobutu Sese Seko, the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL), supported by Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda. Succeded in taking over Congo, then called Zaire
1997- Kabila was installed as new president renaming country to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), ending the First Congo War

1998- The new leadership of the DRC and Rwanda and Uganda renewed the fighting. Rwanda and Uganda took over much of eastern Congo.Anola, Zimbabwe and Nambia supported Kabila.
2000- The UN security council authorized a security peacekeeping force to deploy in the DRC to moniter a recent ceasefire agreed upon in the Lakasa Accord. (MONUC) Large scale fighting still occured across the country
2001- Laurent Kabila was assassinated and replaced by his son Joseph Kabila. In the same year, the UN Expert Panel on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth in the Democratic Republic of the Congo reported that warring parties were puposefully drawing out the war in order to use the resources in the DRC
2002- a peace deal was signed in South Africa between the DRC government and all the rebel groups that were fighting. Rwanda was to withdraw all troops and DRC was to disarm and arrest the Rwandan Hutus responsible for genocide. Meanwhile, thousands of people were still being displaced in the east
2003- Joseph Kabila signs a new constitution, which rules that interim government will rule for two years. Former government soldeirs and those of two rebel groups form a united force
2004- Some fighting and violence starts up again Laurent and Joseph Kabila
Army
UN (external force) DRC Rebel groups Congo War Overview Location Notice how far away the capital is from
where all the conflict/resources are. This
makes it even more difficult for them to try
to maintain control Type of Dispute Boundaries Around Conflict Area Shape of Countries Main conflict area Centripetal Forces Centrifugal Forces Timeline Type of States Outside Influences Opinions Conflict that took place in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Also known as "Africa's World War" and the "Great War of Africa" because there were eight external armies involved in the fighting
It is one of the worst wars in this time period and practically no one knows about it
This is an extremely deadly war
There are resources in the eastern part of the Congo that countries outside of the state are coming in and taking
Another reason for the fighting is that ethnic disputes in countries like Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda are spilling over into the Congo
Countries like the above listed are taking the resources like diamonds and using them for military, guns, etc.
"blood diamond"-a diamond taken illegally from somewhere and used to buy something for military uses such as guns
There have been efforts to create peace, like the Lakasa Accord
There were two Congo wars: First Congo War and the Second Congo War.
There was also a civil war within the Congo
President, or dictator, Mobutu Sese Seko played a huge role in the civil war. He also played a role in the assassination of the previous leader Lumumba
The people started a revolution and then took over Congo again, however there were complications when Laurent Kabila took over. He made some enemies in some of the decisions he made, and didn't do anything to try to stop poverty. He made Rwanda an allie in taking over Mobutu and even after the revolution was pretty much over, the Rwandan army refused to leave, and brought over their own Hutu-Tutsi disputes
Soon after, Uganda sent their army over to support Rwanda's war. Angola then came in on the side against Rwanda and Uganda
Right after Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe allied themselves with Angola and Kabila This conflict can be classified as aa resource dispute because of the conflicts in the eastern parts of Congo where all the resources are. However, because all the ethnic disputes are spilling over from the countries to the east, it can also be classified as an ethnic dispute. The Conglonese are made up of about 200 different ethnic groups, and they all practive discrimination, which increased tensions. The Democractic Republic of Congo is a mainly a compact state,
however it could be classified prorput state. But if the proruption in the bottom left area of the state can even classify it as a prorupt state, it would just barely classify it. All the other countries to the eastern side are also mainly compact states. Jenna Pierce
Marriah Pugh Diseases such as malaria, pnemonia, etc. that are treatable
Genocide, rapes, violence, etc.
Poverty
All the resources and wealth Statistics This is an extremely deadly conflict. During the civil war only, 2.3 million were lost. There were 5.4 million deaths from 1998-2009 only. Outside influences are ivolved in this war. One of them is the UN. When the Lukasa Accord was signed, it called for a deployment of a UN peacekeeping operation along with many other things. Also in June 2000, the president of the UN Security Council requested a Panel of Experts on the illegal exploitation of Congo's resources. Rwanda
Uganda
Burundi Congo
Angola
Zimbabwe
Namibia We both thought that the main challenges in bringing this conflict to a peaceful resolution is that there are so many reasons why this war is happening and so many different groups fighting for different reasons, that it's hard to please everyone. Other challenges include the constant fight against poverty in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the weak government and lack of control. Another big challenge is all of the resources and what everyone is using the resources for- military purposes.

I think that this war is still far from over. There are a lot of bursts of violence still even with the new peace treaty and it's going to take a while for all of the deep rooted conflicts to finally die down. I think there are still going to be more lives lost, but I do think that eventually everything will just lose it's metabolism and gradually stop. The Democratic Republic of the Congo, the main state is a multinational-state, with about 200 different ethnic groups residing in the state. The other main state that is involved though, Rwanda, is a multinational-state as well, with the Hutus and the Tutsis both living there. The conflict between those two ethnic groups that sort of spilled over into the Congo is part of the fighting. The other states that are involved vary.
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