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Curriculum Matters


Amanda Tan

on 20 September 2012

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Transcript of Curriculum Matters

Presented by:
Laffyette Mitchel Amanda Tan
Megan Remedios Raquel Yeo CURRICULUM MATTERS Contents
1. What is curriculum?
2. Definitions of curriculum
3. The 8 aspects of curriculum
4. The 4 levels of curriculum
5. Curriculum planning
6. Activity According to Portelli (1987), there are more than 120 definitions of the term! What is Derives from the word's Latin roots Used historically to describe the subjects taught during the classical period of Greek civilization

Interpretation of the word broadened in the 20th century to include subjects other than the classics School-based personnel such as teachers, principals and parents and university-based specialists, industry and community groups, and government agencies and politicians. Who is involved? Definition 5:

Curriculum is what students construct from working with the computer and its various networks, such as the internet

Students can construct their meanings as they locate sources on the Internet, explore issues and communicate with others Definition 3:

Curriculum is all the planned learning for which the school is responsible

Planned learning = Long written documents specifying content, shorter lists of intended learning outcomes, or general ideas of teacher about what students should know Definition 1:

Curriculum is the "permanent" subjects that embody essential knowledge

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation in US
Requires tests in reading and math annually for students in grades 3 - 8 and in high school
Subjects not tested means not worth knowing Definition 6:

Curriculum is the questioning of authority and the searching for complex views of human situations

Consistent with Socratic maxim "the unexamined life is not worth living"

Postmodernist definition Definition 4:

Curriculum is the totality of learning experiences so that students can attain general skills and knowledge at a variety of learning sites

Emphasis on learning than teaching

Heavily publicized in many countries Definition 2:

Curriculum is those subjects that are most useful for contemporary living

A balanced curriculum should be concerned about contemporary living skills like critical thinking, PBL, and social skills (Rothstein, Wilder & Jacobsen, 2007)

Curriculum must include higher-order skills such as teaching students to think critically and to communicate complex ideas clearly (Wilson, 2002) "Racecourse" Think! Which definition do you think best fit curriculum in local schools? Curriculum? ACTIVITY TIME! Has this ever crossed your mind? Reflect! "Why am I studying subjects that I won't need in the future?" 8 Aspects of Curriculum Some examples... Curriculum Planning Societal 4 Levels of Curriculum Cont'd 8 Aspects of Curriculum Planned activities that are allocated in the timetable.
(e.g. Academic subjects, CCAs, etc.) 1. FORMAL CURRICULUM Refers to activities that take place outside of school hours. 2. INFORMAL CURRICULUM Participation is voluntarily
(e.g. Holiday Camps, Class cohesion, CIP, etc.) Refers to curriculum predetermined in the syllabuses. 3. OFFICIAL/PLANNED CURRICULUM Refers to the reality of the students’ experiences. 4. ACTUAL/RECEIVED CURRICULUM Written as part of form instruction of schooling experiences
Refer to a curriculum document, texts, films, supportive teaching materials 7. EXPLICIT CURRICULUM 8. IMPLICIT CURRICULUM What is not taught in school, left out, or neglected 5. NULL CURRICULUM Things that pupils learn that are not overtly included in the planning of school experiences or even in the consciousness of those responsible for such planning
(E.g. Philosophies, values, culture of the school, etc.) 6. HIDDEN CURRICULUM Institutional Instructional Experiential Designed primarily by the government leaders, subject specialist from national professional organization, and representatives from interest groups

Created based on the need of the society and its cultural influences National Education (NE) subjects like Social Studies and Civic and Moral Education (CME) in local schools

Drug and Sexual awareness education in countries like USA and Canada Example:
Refers to the modification of the societal curriculum at the school level due to the influence of the school's philosophies, subject offered, lesson plans and other written documents CHIJ schools in Singapore do not follow the conventional MOE sexual education guidelines due to its religious stand against abortion and contraceptives

Christian schools have compulsory chapel sessions and devotion time during curriculum time Examples: - Refers to the deliverance of curriculum content to students by school leaders and classroom teachers

- It has to be acknowledged that human prejudice will influence and "modify" the curriculum when it is being taught to students - May not be 100% effective to all students as it does not consider individual needs of the students' ability

- Hence, it gets further modified when taught to different students Refers to the curriculum that is felt by students themselves

Highly subjective as in depends on how the student internalizes the curriculum Some students may see the value of an overseas CIP programme whereas others might find it a waste of time and choose not to fully engage in the activities Example: # Goals, strategies, specific tasks, schedules and outcomes for courses/content

# Planners are mainly policymakers and MOE http://www.moe.gov.sg/education/desired-outcomes/ http://schoolsonline.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/el/98010.pdf - Major in theater, dance, instrumental music, vocal music, or visual art

- uses mainstream subject to teach Arts

The math curriculum incorporates principles of design
science teachers use musical instruments to study sound and stage lighting to demonstrate the properties of light Boston's Arts Academy [MIT] Magic, Witchcraft and the Spirit World:
Take a look into the occult world of rituals, trances and magic

[Swinburne University of Technology] Technophobic and Asexual:
This class tries to find out why older adults are afraid of online romantic relationships

[Michigan State] Horse Behavior and Welfare:
This course will teach you how to take care of horses Refers to the advertised educational menu

Helps us to understand how schools socialise children to a set of expectations

Vallance argued that values learnt from text materials are more powerful and longer lasting than what is intentionally taught or what the explicit curriculum of the school publicly provides

E.g. Taking initiative starts in school Text material persuades

Materials + structure of the classroom
--> influence values that are not recognised by students or teachers (Vallance, 1973 - 1974) This advertised menu does not exhaust what schools teach

Works have shown how the culture of the classroom and the school socialized children to values

Structure of the classroom + demands from teachers
--> affective expectations of students --> shape the content of what they learn (Jackson, 1968)

E.g. A child learns that gratification and successes need to be shared with others in the class Goals: Teaching children to read and write, to figure, and to learn something about the history of the country

- Goals known to public
- School offers to the community an educational menu
- Advertises what it is prepared to provide Do you think the choices below foster negative or positive competition?

Athletic competition
Formal grading practices
Differentiation of classes into ability groups Think! Students provide teacher with what the teacher wants or expects

Exacerbated by programmes that use behaviour modification techniques

E.g. Competition in school Compliant behaviour Implicit curriculum of the school is manifested in more subtle ways

E.g. School architecture/design of school furniture

What does the interior design tell you about the school? Implicit curriculum is usually considered as having an entirely negative impact

Some positive attributes:

- Punctuality

- Willingness to work hard on tasks that are not immediately enjoyable

- The ability to defer immediate gratification in order work for distant goals

- Form no formal part of the curriculum, yet they are taught in school Factors to note when planning school programmes:

When various subjects will be taught

Amount of time devoted to the subjects

E.g. Arts curriculum vs. Science curriculum Cover/subtle, consistent

System of rewards and punishments, grading, praising (shaping behaviour), socialising expectations (fostering compliant behaviour) Purpose of reward system: To make children perform based on the reward

Increase or decrease the size or attractiveness of the reward to bring out the desired behaviour at the lowest cost

Modifies a child’s behaviour to comply with goals that the child had no hand in formulating and that might not have any intrinsic meaning Reward System The intellectual processes that schools emphasize and neglect Did that thought change after coming to NIE? Implications of explicit curriculum E.g. Timetable

Teaches one about punctuality, a preview of the ordered world, hierarchy of values (time sacrificed for CME) The content or subject areas that are present and absent in school curricula Two major dimensions: Share with us an experience of when you learned something that was not taught in school
Or should we continue to let our curriculum to be planned for us? Should we be given a choice of what we want to study when we are younger? Think! Think! Think! What about tuition? How different do you think a home-schooled person's curriculum is compared to ours? Since teachers and pupils are human, the realities of any course will never fully match up to the hopes and intentions of those who have planned it. This helps us to appreciate gaps in theory and practice. Think! Anticipates the knowledge, skills, and abilities that today's students will need in order to function effectively in tomorrow's society

Preserves and transmits to students the culture and traditions of the past

Social values produced in texts may contribute to implicit curriculum and contradict what is explicitly taught Think! Is there a way to avoid instilling certain perceptions? What can we do about it? E.g. Law, anthropology, the arts, communication, economics Why do we put an emphasis on certain subjects as compared to others? Educational theorist Elliot Eisner said: "what they (refers to implicit curriculum) teach may be among the most important lessons a child learns". - Proportion of time dedicated to arts subjects as compared to science subjects is relatively small

- Arts subjects are generally taught in Friday afternoons rather than in the morning

- In the morning, students are fresh, they can cope with the rigors of reading and math

- In the afternoon, arts subjects can be used as a form of reward, break from demands of thinking

- Reinforces the belief that the arts do not require rigorous and demanding thought

- Arts = unimportant aspect of the school programme? Implications of implicit curriculum Motivates children to learn extrinsically that they will be rewarded in some way by the teacher

Implicit messages reinforce rather than challenge existing mainstream social values Use of extrinsic rewards: Create a set of expectations of the children’s part that dampens their future interest in activities if extrinsic rewards are not provided

"No reward, no talk”? Singapore’s national curriculum aims to nurture each child to his full potential, to discover his talents and to develop in him a passion for life-long learning.

Students go through a broad range of experiences to develop the skills and values that they will need for life. Summary Singapore curriculum tries to nurture holistic learners who are discerning Ultimately, the curriculum is as effective as the deliverers and recipients The planned curriculum may not always reap the intended results
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