Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

The Cold War and the 1950s

No description
by

Noelle Toxqui

on 8 April 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of The Cold War and the 1950s

The Cold War and the 1950s
The Cold War Begins
The Korean War
The Cold War Expands
The Cold War at Home
An Economic Boom
A Society on the Move
Mass Culture and Family Life
Dissent and Discontent
Roots of the Cold War
1. American and Soviet systems differed
2. Allies wanted a strong Germany and independent Eastern Europe, but Stalin wanted a weak Germany and made the Eastern European countries his satellite states
3. Truman and Stalin clashed at Potsdam
Meeting Soviet Challenges
Post-WWII Europe

Blue = Non-communist

Red = Communist
1. In 1946,
Winston Churchill
said that "an

iron curtain
has descended across the Continent."
2. Truman supported giving money to Greece and Turkey to aid them in fighting communist forces

3.
Truman Doctrine: Truman's promise to aid any nation struggling against communist movements
Containing Soviet Expansion
1.
Containment - keep communism contained
within its existing borders
2. In order to help Western Europe's economy (and to promote containment!), the
Marshall Plan
began in 1948 and
sent grants, loans, food, and supplies to Western Europe
.
The Cold War Heats Up
1.
Stalin blocked off Western Berlin
in 1948, but
Americans used the Berlin airlift
to continue to deliver goods
2. North Atlantic Trade Organization (
NATO
) formed in 1949 and included countries from
Western Europe
and
North America
and
West Germany
(1955)
3. In 1955, the
Soviet Union
and the
Eastern Europe
an satellite states formed the
Warsaw Pact
Communists Gain Control of China
Americans Fight in Korea
The Korean War Has Lasting Effects
1. A
Civil War
divided
China
. The Soviets supported
communist Mao Zedong
, and Americans supported
Nationalist
leader
Jiang Jieshi
.
2. In 1949, Mao Zedong was successful.
Mao Zedong's Communist China
justified USSR's confidence that communism could influence the world.
1. After WWII,
Korea was divided
into two independent countries at the
38th parallel
by the U.S. and USSR.
North = Communist. South = Non-Communist.

2. In 1950,
North Korea invaded South Korea
. Soon after,
Truman
sent in troops to
help South Korea
. Later, other
UN
countries joined.
3.
U.S. General
Douglas
MacArthur
was successful in driving the North Koreans out of South Korea.
4. MacArthur's troop invaded North Korea, but
China joined the war
and forced back all UN troops. This makes it difficult for anyone to win...
1.
Eisenhower
gets elected
president
on the promise of ending the war. He helps the
Korean War end in a stalemate
in 1953.
2. Communist
North Korea

allied with

China
, and the non-Communist
South Korea allied with the U.S
. and other democracies. The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (
SEATO
) was formed to help
prevent communism
.
"The first task of a new Administration [....] : To bring the Korean war to an early and honorable end. This is my pledge to the American people. [...] The resolution will be: To forego the diversions of politics and to concentrate on the job of ending the Korean war-until that job is honorably done. That job requires a personal trip to Korea. I shall make that trip. Only in that way could I learn how best to serve the American people in the cause of peace. I shall go to Korea." -Eisenhower, Election of 1952
The Arms Race Heightens Tensions
Eisenhower Introduces New Policies
The Cold War Goes Global
1. In 1949, the
Soviet Union
launched its first
atomic bomb
.
2. Soon both the
U.S. and USSR began an arms race
with each trying to make the best new weapon.
Nuclear weapons
were developed,
creating a program of mutually assured destruction
if either used them.
1. Americans focused on increasing the supply of
nuclear weapons
.
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles promoted brinkmanship
, bringing Americans close to war with communists by
threatening massive retaliation without actually going to war
.
2.
Nikita Khrushchev
,
Stalin's successor
, met with Eisenhower in 1955, which seemed like a move toward peace...at the time...
1. Khrushchev's brutality during the Hungarian revolution left Eisenhower's massive retaliation approach seem powerless
2. Britain and France used the
Suez crisis
as an excuse to seize control of the Suez canal, which upset Eisenhower
3. The
Eisenhower Doctrine
promised the use of force to
help any Middle Eastern nation threatened by communism
. Eisenhower also used the CIA to fight communism.
4. The
USSR
launched a tiny
satellite named Sputnik 1 into space
in 1957 and then launched
Sputnik 2
carrying a dog.
Congress created NASA
soon after.
Worrying About Communists at Home
Spy Cases Worry Americans
McCarthy Uses Ruthless Tactics
1. After WWII, a
second Red Scare

was a result of the
recent spread of communism
.
The
Smith Act
made it illegal to support overthrowing the U.S. gov't (and was used to hurt communists)
2. The House Un-American Activities Committee (
HUAC
)
investigated possible threats
. Writers, producers, and directors became known as the
Hollywood Ten
after refusing to answer HUAC questions. Soon
blacklists made it hard for entertainment figures suspected of communism to be hired
.
3. Freedom of speech went out the door as
people could get punished for associating with communists or acting "disloyal"
4. Manhattan Project leader
Oppenheimer
had been chairman of the General Advisory Committee of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission but was
denied classified information because his wife and brother were communists
.
1. With the help of both Whittaker Cambers and Richard Nixon (future VP under Eisenhower), government worker
Alger Hiss was found guilty of espionage
in 1948.
2.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
were found guilty of conspiring to share info about nuclear science to the Soviets. They were
electrocuted
in 1953.
1.
Senator Joseph McCarthy
charged that the
State Dept.was infested with communists
and began an
anticommunism
campaign
2.
McCarthyism brought extreme charges and allegations against suspected communists, destroying reputations and lives of anyone he accused.
His attack of Marshall Plan creator George Marshall made senators fear McCarthy.
3. McCarthy fell from power in 1954 after claiming the U.S. Army was filled with communists. The Senate's
televised hearings exposed McCarthy's bullying tactics.
The Nation Recovers From War
Truman Overcomes Huge Obstacles
Eisenhower Charts a Middle Path
Americans Move to the Suburbs
Eisenhower Interstate Highway System
Migrating to the Sunbelt
The American Economy Changes Focus
Educational Opportunities Expand
The Culture of Consumerism
Family Life in the Fifties
Television Takes Center Stage
Rock-and-Roll Shakes the Nation
Critics Reject the Fifties Culture
Rural and Urban Poverty
"Other Americans" Face Injustice
1. The
GI Bill
of Rights
helped WWII veterans with buying a house, going to college, and making a living
.
2. Increases rates in marriage and families caused a
baby boom from 1946-1964.
(Don't write this)
Fun fact: In 1957, a baby was born every 7 seconds. 4.3 million babies were born that year, including your teacher's dad!
3. The postwar rush to buy consumer goods caused a severe
inflation
, so prices rose rapidly
4. The U.S. experienced
economic growth
and had a higher standard of living than the rest of the world.
5.
Technological advances
led to increased worker
productivity
.
6.
Increased government spending
because of the Korean War and the Marshall Plan
boosted the economy
1. A labor movement caused Congress to pass the
Taft-Hartley Act
against Truman's wishes,
taking away
some of the
rights labor unions
gained in the New Deal.
2. Truman angered Congress by trying to make advances in Civil Rights, but he was able to desegregate most of the military by 1951
3.
Truman faced great opposition
when he was reelected in
1948 presidential election
, and many thought Republican Thomas Dewey would win.
4.
Truman's Fair Deal
program aimed to
strengthen New Deal reforms
while establishing new programs, but he didn't get much help from Congress.
1.
Ike
appealed to both Democrats and Republicans, and he enjoyed a relatively
peaceful and prosperous presidency
.
1. More than
40 million people moved to the suburbs
thanks to the GI Bill and the Federal Housing Administration that gave loans and the creation of new suburb communities, like
Levittown

2. As
suburbs grew in popularity
, so did Americans'
dependency on cars
1. The
Interstate Highway Act
of 1956
expanded highways and connected major cities
, allowing people to commute, travel, and go on vacations much more easily.
1. People
migrated
to the
Sunbelt
, the southern and western states (including CA).
2. Migration caused changes in politics and in the environment.
1. More
service sector
jobs (retail, law, banking, etc.) existed and more people worked in
information industries
(computers, etc.)
2.
Franchise businesses
allowed the same goods and services to be sold throughout the U.S.
3. The postwar economic boom allowed for some
multinational corporations
4. The labor union organization
AFL-CIO
formed in 1955.
1. Government funding helped more schools open to accommodate the growing population and create programs to produce more scientists and science teachers
2. The
California Master Plan
made universities, state colleges, and community colleges more accessible.
1. Many social critics
disapproved of the emphasis on conformity
. This was seen in literature and some films.
2. Writers and artists known as
beatniks
(or the beats) accepted individuality over conformity.
(Popular portrayal in more modern pop culture)
1. More
minorities moved to cities
as the middle class moved to suburbs.
Inner cities
were left with crime and poverty, but government developed
urban renewal projects
.
2. The
rural poor suffer
, and farmers faced hardships, sometimes causing them to move to the cities.
1.
Puerto Ricans
moved to cities like New York City and faced
discrimination
2.
Mexican migrant farm workers
were often
exploited
and threatened with deportation if they complained.
Ernesto Galarza
fought to
help them
.
3. The
termination policy
intended to end tribal government but also
ended federal responsibility for

the health and welfare of

Native Americans
.
1.
As the economy boomed and the median
(average)
family income rose, consumerism flourished
. Many Americans bought as much as they could (often on credit).
2. New shopping centers and supermarkets emerged as Americans bought items that promised
convenience
1. The
nuclear family
(mother, father, and children) in which the
women
served as the
happy homemaker
was portrayed everywhere as
ideal
2. More
focus
is placed on
children
, thanks largely to
Dr. Benjamin Spock
, who wrote parenting books
3. There was a
religious revival
in the 1950s. "In God We Trust" was added to the dollar bill and "under God" was added to the Pledge of Allegiance.
4.
Life expectancy and health improved as medicine
advanced
through the introduction of antibiotics like penicillin and vaccines like the polio vaccine.
1. Nearly every household owned a
TV
, which helped a
mass national culture
spread even further. TV shows also reinforced the
ideal
of the 1950s
family
.
Father Knows Best
Leave it to Beaver
2. Popular kids' shows included the
Howdy Doody Show
or the
Mickey Mouse Club
. Popular sitcoms included
I Love Lucy
,
Leave it to Beaver
,
The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet
, and
Father Knows Best
.
Mickey Mouse Club
Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet
1.
Rock-and-Roll
music borrowed from R&B music and quickly became the

symbol of
the emerging

youth culture
.
2. The most famous rock star was
Elvis Presley
.
Disneyland opened in Anaheim on July 17, 1955!
Ever wonder why it's the Sleeping Beauty Castle at Disneyland?
Sleeping Beauty,
which came out in 1959, was in production when Disneyland was built.

PS: Aurora's blue dress > pink dress
The opening day was televised on ABC
One of the hosts was actor and future president, Ronald Reagan
Full transcript