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Bradley Williams Valence Engagement – is the buzz word for the commitment workers
A key link between leadership, motivation/ coaching techniques, and engagement is that leaders need to use motivation and coaching techniques to help keep employees engaged.
Engagement is reflected in employee willingness to stay with the firm and go beyond the call of duty The worth or attractiveness of an outcome
Each work situation has multiple outcomes, and each outcome has a valence of its own. MOTIVATORS AND COACHES Effective leaders are outstanding motivators and coaches
Often use specific motivational and coaching skills
These techniques are important because not all leaders can influence others through formal authority or charisma and inspirational leadership alone.
Good Coaching is motivating workers. This is an important part of coaching them
The leader will often attempt to motivate the person being coached LEADERSHIP AND EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT EXPECTANCY THEORY AND MOTIVATIONAL SKILLS Expectancy Theory of motivation: is based on the premise that the amount of effort people expend depends on how much reward they expect to get in return
This theory deals with (Cognition and Process)
Cognitive: it emphasizes the thoughts, judgments, and desires of the person being motivated
Process: it attempts to explain how motivation takes place 3 BASIC COMPONENTS OF EXPECTANCY THEORY Referred to as “VIE Theory”
All 3 elements must be present for motivation to take place
To be motivated – people must value the reward, think they can perform, and have reasonable assurance that their performance will lead to a reward
3. Expectancy Instrumentality An individual’s assessment of the probability that performance will lead to certain outcomes
Also referred to as – a Performance to outcome expectance
When people engage in a particular behavior, they do so with the intention of achieving a desired outcome or reward Expectancy An individual’s assessment of the probability that effort will lead to correct performance of the task
Expectancies influence whether a person will even strive to earn a reward
Self-confident people have higher expectancies than do less self-confident people
If you are confident about your task related skills, you will get your act together to do the task GOAL THEORY Goal setting is a basic process that is directly or indirectly part of all major theories of work motivation
Leaders and managers widely accept goal setting as a means to improve and sustain performance
The core findings of goal theory is that individuals who are provided with specific hard goals perform better than those who are given easy, nonspecific, “do your best” goals or no goals GOAL THEORY Cont'd... 2 Powerful Goals 1. Create a big, comprehensive goal
2. Break the goal down into smaller steps Leader should recognize that participation is valuable – it can lead to higher satisfaction with goal setting process
When workers know that their performance will be evaluated in terms of how well they attain their goals, the impact of goals increases
Goals – Feedback and Rewards
Having employees work as teams with a specific team goal, rather than as individuals with only individual goals increases productivity
Final goal – setting principle is that a learning goal orientation improves performance more than a performance goal orientation does Goal Theroy Cont'd... Goals – Other Concerns Major concern – using goals to motivate performance is that leaders, as well as other workers, will take unethical and dysfunctional shortcuts to attain their goals
Example: Managers engage in unethical behavior such as shipping unfinished products to reach sales goals
It is essential to specify how the goals will be attained with a particular focus on ethical behavior
Example: Financial incentives for attaining goals often encourages unethical behavior Goals- Other Concerns Cont'd... Heavy emphasis on goals can create problems as workers focusing so much on attaining their goals that they neglect emergencies and new opportunities
Goals may cause systematic problems in organizations due to narrowed focus, increased risk taking, unethical behavior, inhibited learning, decreased cooperation, and decreased intrinsic motivation Leadership Skills and Behaviors Associated with Expectancy Theory Determine what levels and kinds of performance are needed to achieve organizational goals.
Make the performance level attainable by the individuals being motivated
Train and encourage people
Make explicit the link between rewards and performance
Make sure the rewards are large enough
Analyze what factors work in opposition to the effectiveness of the reward
Explain the meaning and implications of second-level outcomes
Understand individual differences in valences.
Recognize that when workers are in a positive mood, high valences, instrumentalities, and expectancies are more likely to lead to good performance Goal Theory includes:
1. specific and difficult goals result in high performance
2. goals must be accepted by group members
3. goals are more effective when they are linked to feedback and rewards
4. the combination of individual and group goals is very effective
5. a learning goal orientation is more effective than a performance goal orientation Motivating others by giving them recognition and praise can be considered a direct application of positive reinforcement.
Recognition programs to reward and motivate employees are standard practice. Goal Theory Cont'd Recognition Need 1. Identify a meritorious behavior
2. Recognize that behavior with an oral, written, or material reward
Recognition should be linked to corporate values and personal goals
Giving workers an opportunity to experience pride can be a strong internal motivator, workers still receive recognition
Motivate through pride, it is best for the manager to set the compass on pride, not money, and for workers to be proud of daily accomplishments
Equity Theory: can be applied to employee motivation. The core of the theory is that employees compare their inputs and outcomes with others in the workplace. When employees believe that they are being treated equitably, they are willing to work harder Coaching Major purpose of Coaching:
1. To achieve enthusiasm and high performance in a team setting
2. To have a close relationship with leadership
Coaching is 2 way process – being a great coach requires having a talented team
Coaching requires: a high degree of interpersonal risk and trust on the part of both sides in the relationship.
Effective coaching focuses on the growth and development of people rather than telling them how to deal with a given situation. Common Misperceptions of Coaching 1. Coaching applies only to one-on-one work
2. Coaching is mostly about providing new knowledge and skills
3. Coaching easily falls into psychotherapy
4. Coaches need to be experts in what they are coaching
5. Coaching has to be done face-to-face Improvements to Coaching 1. Communicate clear expectations
2. Build relationships
3. Give feedback on areas that require specific improvements
4. Listen actively
5. Help remove obstabcles
6. Give emotional support including empathy
7. Reflect content or meaning
8. Give gentle advice and guidance
9. Allow for modeling of desired performance and behavior
10. Gain a commitment to change
11. Applaud good results Thank You for your Time! Bio for Team 10 Case Summary blog.foodnetwork.com Discussion Question 1 Several studies conducted over a fifty-five year time span have indicated that employees welcome praise for a job well done as much as they welcome a regular paycheck. Do you believe that praise, recognition, and other motivational “rewards” should be a “standard procedure” at a place of employment, instead of an occasional gift? Why or why not? What implications would this have on a workplace, employers? Discussion Question 2 On occasion leaders may take unethical and dysfunctional shortcuts to attain their goals. For example, a CEO may ship a dysfunctional product to attain a sales goal. “The use of financial incentives often encourages unethical behaviour”. As such, the use of goals in an organization may lead to narrowed focus, risk taking, unethical behaviour, inhibited learning, decreased cooperation and decreased motivation. What are some methods an institution could use to remedy this? What are some effective strategies to prevent this kind of behaviour? Justin Salisbury is a super-franchiser for a large chain of soup-and-sandwich shops. He owns twelve shops in the same region, having invested $2 million to own these stores. One-half the investment in the stores came from inheritance and investments Justin had made prior to becoming a franchisor. The other half of the money was borrowed, so Justin feels considerable pressure to earn enough gross profit t from the stores to make his debt payments and earn a living. Justin concluded that he needed to increase revenues from his stores about 15 percent in order to net enough profit t for a comfortable living. Answers to Questions 1. What advice can you give Justin Salisbury about the most likely motivational consequenexes of his recognition program? In the chapter, it is discussed how egregiously demanding goals often reduce motivation. When a person is given a highly demanding task, their work performance decreases because they do not believe that they will be able to fulfill the goal. “Difficulty in reaching the goal leads to frustration, which in turn leads to lowered performance (as explained in relation to expectancy theory).” Most of the managers in Justin’s case would feel that the demands are not attainable and will suffer from “low motivation”. 2. What other form of recognition should Justin offer the store managers? To “maximize its motivational impact” Justin should link his demands with corporate values. Instead of saying “we need a 15% increase over a year” he should frame his demands as saying, “ensure that every customer is greeted with a smile, taken care of”. This links the corporate values of increase in profit with a manager’s personal goal of ensuring the public is happy at their store. Also, Justin should take into account every managers desire for recognition individually, some employees would want recognition in forms other than those presented. A possible solution would be to ask every manager what “gift” they wanted, have them work toward that individual goal. 3. Would it be better for Justin to have a recognition program aimed directly at the order takers and cashiers than at their managers? expalin your reasoning. It would be a smarter decision to attempt to motivate the cashiers rather than the managers. Going directly to the source of the problem would be smarter, as less rewards and incentives could be used on lower-level employees. Similar reward mechanisms could be used such as “employee of the month” or “2% bonus” with a much smaller cost-reward ratio than the managers. They would also be getting the reward directly, increasing positive outcomes from their job as well as “engagement”.