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Mechanism of Action of Antiviral Drugs

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by

Rachel Curiel

on 22 February 2011

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Transcript of Mechanism of Action of Antiviral Drugs

Viruses are completely unaffected by antibiotics because they lack a cell wall, ribosomes and other structures
Some viruses encode their own polymerases which can be potential targets for antiviral drugs
Many researchers are trying to develop more effective antiviral drugs
The drugs available are only effective against a specific type of virus
No antiviral drug can eliminate laten viral infections Antiviral drugs and viruses a new group of drugs in the anti-HIV arsenal
prevents the virus from entering host cell
examples:
- Enfuvirtide binds to an HIV protein that mediates fusion of an viral envelope with the cell membrane thus preventing entry into cell
-Maraviroc blocks the HIV coreceptor CCR5 Viral uncoating In order for viral replication to occur, the protein coat of the virus must dissociate from the nucleic acid once entering the host cell
drugs that interfere with uncoating step prevents replication
examples:
-Amantadine and Rimantadine block the uncoating of influenza A virus after it enters the cell Entry Inhibitors Nucleoside Analogs Can be phosphorylated in vivo by viraly encoded or normal cellular enzymes, which form nucleotide analogs, when these are incorporated into viral DNA they iinterfere with replication
-chemical structure similar to RNA and DNA
Can result in termination of the nucleotide chain or defective strands will alter in base pairing properties
only effective against replicating viruses
-HIV
doesn't cure the infection but limits the duration of the active infection
interfere with the activity of reverse transcription Non-Nucleoside
Polymerase Inhibitors compounds that inhibit the activity of viral polymerase by binding to a site other than a nucleotide-binding site Non-Nucleoside Reverse
Transriptase Inhibitors inhibit the activity of reverse transcriptase by binding to a site other than the nucleotide-binding site
Used in combination with nucleoside analogs to treat HIV infection Integrase Inhibitors offers new option for treating HIV infections
prevents virus from inserting DNA by inhibiting the HIV encoded enzyme
-Raltegravir is the first approved drug of this class Assembly and Release of Viral Particles the viral encoded enzymes required for the production and release of viral particles are the targets of medications used to treat certain viral infections
Examples:
- Protease Inhibitors
- Neuraminidase Inhibitors
used to treat HIV infections
inhibit the HIV encoded enzymes proteins
plays an essential role in the production of viral particles inhibits the neuraminidase, ( enzyme encoded by influenza viruses necessary for the release of infectious viral particles from infected cells) and limits the duration of influenza infections taken within two days Mechanism of Action of Antiviral Drugs

Team Blue Protease Inhibitors Neuraminidase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Most effective antivirul drugs use to their advantage the virally encoded enzymes that are used to replicate viral nucleic acid
Limited to treating infections caused by herpesvirus or HIV
Examples:
- Nucleoside Analogs
- Non-nucleoside Polymerase Inhibitors
- Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors References Nester, E. W., Anderson, D. G., Roberts, C. E., & Nester, M. T. (2009). Microbiology a human perspective 6th edition. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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