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Bones

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on 10 October 2016

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Transcript of Bones

Joints designed for movement
cartilaginous surfaces
synovial fluid cushion
ligaments connect bone to bone

Knee joint
Synovial joint
Bone cells
Osteoblasts
- bone forming cells (new or repair), secrete “matrix” of collagen (flexibility) and deposit calcium and phosphorous (hardness).
Osteocytes
- mature bone cells in chambers (lacunae), surrounded by matrix.
Osteoclasts
- break down bone to release calcium to the body when needed.

Lifelong process of bone deposition and absorption (bone is living tissue!).


Osteoclasts
- break down bone to release calcium into the blood.
Osteoblasts
- build up bone when calcium is plentiful. New bone forms where there is stress (weight bearing exercise). Bones that are used frequently are able to change shape.
Hormones modulate the process
calcitonin
takes calcium from blood and causes it to be stored in bone
parathyroid hormone
causes calcium to be removed from bone and absorbed into the bloodstream.

Storage of minerals
- calcium and phosphorus can be released from bone when needed by the body
Storage of fat
- yellow bone marrow is rich in fat
Blood cell production
- red marrow of certain bones
Support
- rigid framework
Movement
- place of attachment for muscles. Bones can move at joints when muscles contract.
Protection
- shielding of internal organs within chest cavity, protection of brain within the skull.


Bone structure
Bone remodeling
Functions of bone
living tissue
connective tissue - cells surrounded by a “matrix” of collagen and calcium phosphate crystals





tensile strength
- collagen (rubbery)
hardness (compressional strength) - precipitation of calcium phosphate crystals within matrix
strength of bone approaches reinforced concrete

What is bone?
Compact bone
- on the surface of bones
Spongy bone
- sponge filled cavities filled with either red or yellow bone marrow

The osteon: the compact bone
Joints are the places where bones meet.
fibrous
- no movement, held together by connective tissue (skull)
cartilaginous joints
- held together by cartilage - between vertebrae, ribs to sternum, pelvis, etc.
synovial
- most joints - designed for motion

Joints
Elbow joint
Skeletal system
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
What are the parts of a long bone?
How do bones grow, remodel, and repair?
How are hormones involved in bone growth?
What is osteoporosis?
How is age determined through skeletal remains?
What are the components of the axial and appendicular skeletons?
What are synovial joints and what kind of angular movements do they allow?

Anatomy of a long bone
shaft (diaphysis)
heads (epiphysis)
Spongy bone
is made of plates with spaces filled with red bone marrow
Cartilage is flexible connective tissue categorized based on the type and arrangement of the extracellular matrix fibers.


Hyaline cartilage
: ends of long bones, nose, ends of ribs, larynx and trachea
Fibrocartilage
: disks between vertebrae and in the knee; stronger than hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartilage
: ear flaps and epiglottis; more flexible than hyaline cartilage
Full transcript