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Transcript of Bones
synovial fluid cushion
ligaments connect bone to bone
- bone forming cells (new or repair), secrete “matrix” of collagen (flexibility) and deposit calcium and phosphorous (hardness).
- mature bone cells in chambers (lacunae), surrounded by matrix.
- break down bone to release calcium to the body when needed.
Lifelong process of bone deposition and absorption (bone is living tissue!).
- break down bone to release calcium into the blood.
- build up bone when calcium is plentiful. New bone forms where there is stress (weight bearing exercise). Bones that are used frequently are able to change shape.
Hormones modulate the process
takes calcium from blood and causes it to be stored in bone
causes calcium to be removed from bone and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Storage of minerals
- calcium and phosphorus can be released from bone when needed by the body
Storage of fat
- yellow bone marrow is rich in fat
Blood cell production
- red marrow of certain bones
- rigid framework
- place of attachment for muscles. Bones can move at joints when muscles contract.
- shielding of internal organs within chest cavity, protection of brain within the skull.
Functions of bone
connective tissue - cells surrounded by a “matrix” of collagen and calcium phosphate crystals
- collagen (rubbery)
hardness (compressional strength) - precipitation of calcium phosphate crystals within matrix
strength of bone approaches reinforced concrete
What is bone?
- on the surface of bones
- sponge filled cavities filled with either red or yellow bone marrow
The osteon: the compact bone
Joints are the places where bones meet.
- no movement, held together by connective tissue (skull)
- held together by cartilage - between vertebrae, ribs to sternum, pelvis, etc.
- most joints - designed for motion
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
What are the parts of a long bone?
How do bones grow, remodel, and repair?
How are hormones involved in bone growth?
What is osteoporosis?
How is age determined through skeletal remains?
What are the components of the axial and appendicular skeletons?
What are synovial joints and what kind of angular movements do they allow?
Anatomy of a long bone
is made of plates with spaces filled with red bone marrow
Cartilage is flexible connective tissue categorized based on the type and arrangement of the extracellular matrix fibers.
: ends of long bones, nose, ends of ribs, larynx and trachea
: disks between vertebrae and in the knee; stronger than hyaline cartilage
: ear flaps and epiglottis; more flexible than hyaline cartilage