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Inequality and the Emergence of Global Governance
Transcript of Inequality and the Emergence of Global Governance
Development Cooperation, Fall 2012 Inequality &
Emerging Global Governance Chiara Ariotti
Katya Obydennikova Levels of Governance to Face
Neo-Liberalism Globalization Global Inequality Global Inequality&
International Institutions, 2001 Global Social Policy& Governance, 2007 Global Social Governance of International Society Int'l Institutions Structure International: International Organizations:
Bretton Woods Organizations: World Bank, IMF, GATT (WTO)
United Nations: ILO, WHO, UNESCO, UNDP, UNICEF, ECOSOC Private: Global Corporate Sector (CSR, CSI), International Non-Governmental Organizations Regional: Regional Integrations:
EU, MERCOSUR, ASEAN, ANDEAN, ANZCERTA Domestic (National):
Government Institutions, NGOs, Urban Governance Normative 고기킹 용인수지 Two Ministries of Health
Two Ministries of Social Security
Two Ministries of Education INGOs Regional Grouping G8
ECOSOC ESC=SC+members who direct economic & social matters Collaboration
agencies More Aid with reformed aid structure and delivery architecture;
Collaboration between international organizations, the global corporate sector, INGOs and civil society organizations;
Reforms of World Bank and WTO;
Management of global labor migrations. Domestic Level of a Colonizer Did Colonization result in inequality today?
Did it help to develop colonized countries? International International The pattern of European settlement in the colonies determined the type of institutions that these countries developed and that these institutions are a major factor behind their economic backwardness, Acemoglu et al. (2001) Bretton Woods& United Nations: Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Aid would be provided only on condition that recipients peruse the neo-liberal policies The countries that received a large number of settlers “tried to replicate European institutions” and therefore created the right set of rules encouraging future economic growth. "There is no doubt that a large number of negative structural features of the process of economic underdevelopment have historical roots going back to European colonization". Bairoch (1993) More investment flowed into poor countries in the colonial period of one century ago than today. The reasons for these large investments point to other benefits of colonialism: the introduction of legal protection of property rights, effective public services and the rule of law, Ferguson (2003) Cluster of connected norms, principles & rules Cluster of norms, organized into stable and ongoing social practices Changes (DENSITY) Content of norms (more extensive schemes of cooperation to safeguard peace and security, to solve common problems and to sustain common values);
Justification and evaluation of norms (emergence of a range of internationally agreed core principles );
Moves towards the more effective implementation of these norms States are not anymore the principal agents of world order but they are "agents" in the sense of someone who acts for, or on behalf of, another. Elements of DEFORMITY Distribution of advantages and disadvantages (security, economic order)
Who sets the rules of Int'l society
Capacity of states & societies to adapt to the demands of a global economy
Limited capacity of int'l law & institutions to constrain effectively the unilateral and often illegal acts of the strong. Institutions reflect unequal power & globalization is related to increases in many different forms of inequality. Conclusions The idea of a global moral community is not entirely illusory even if the elements of deformity suggest that we need to be constantly skeptical;
Even if we accept the broad notion of shared responsibility, there will always be judgements to be made regarding the responsibility of particular governments at particular times;
Even if global concern is limited, we might expect greater potential for moral change at the regional level because of high levels of integration, shared historical background, and stronger and more effective institutionalization ;
Rich states and int'l institutions need to interact with domestic political, economic, and social actors. Globalization in a sense that we use it now, appeared later than institutions of global governance.
Globalization interconnected the whole world,making it impossible to ignore issues of inequality
Is it really Globalization's negative impact or insufficient operation of global governance institutions themselves that cannot resolve inequality issues (North-dominated, overlap)?
Should inequality issues be addressed to on regional and domestic levels, contrary attempts to resolve them on global level? Our thoughts... Building several regional social policies of redistribution, regulation and rights. Deacon,2007
"..the role of regionalism is to help create new equilibrium in politics that balances the protection of the vulnerable..." Falk, 1995
Landlocked country = hostage to their neighbors (mostly African problem), Collier, 2007 The most difficult issues arising with regard to CSR occurs in poor countries with weak and sometimes corrupt governments. Facilitate the stimulation of a developing nation’s economy vs. the capability of abusing their power in host countries.
Bad policies and governance need not be a trap: societies can learn from failure, and many do, then why is bad governance fo persistent in some environments? - not everybody loses from it. Collier, 2007 Private Corporate Social Responsibility
No big INGOs to address inequality issues yet Private Regional Domestic International Institutions are North Dominated
International Institutions overlap
Even if global concern is limited, we might expect greater potential for moral change at the regional level because of high levels of integration, shared historical background, and stronger and more effective institutionalization The growth of a global economy gave rise to new public opinion demands of social responsibility, sustainability and transparency on the enterprise’s behavior (CSR in the international context: environment and sustainable development , human rights and labor rights, economy and local society, transparency, legality, consumers & supply chain, CSI)
INGOs: draw attention to inequality issues