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American Intonation

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john poe

on 7 November 2014

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Transcript of American Intonation

Van Der Waals
Bonding
Polar Molecule-Induced Dipole Bonds
Introduction
Fluctuating Induced Dipole Bonds
Polar Molecule-Induced Dipole Bonds
Permanent Dipole Bonds
Hydrogen Bonding
Topics
Permanent Dipole Bonds
Media
Fluctuating Induced
Dipole Bonds
SECONDARY BONDING
tap to start
:)
:)
Thank you for your attention.
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Introduction
JOHANNES DIDEREK VAN DER WAALS
molecules are of finite size and attract each other
one of the first to postulate an
intermolecular
force
-- van der Waals force
NOUN-ADJECTIVE INTONATION
NOUNS
ADJECTIVES
I'ts a nail.
I'ts short.
I'ts a short nail.
It's chocolate.
It's a chocolate cake.
It's good.
It's a good plan.
It's GUARded.
It's guarDED.
It's wide.
It's a wide river.
There're four.
There're four cards.
We're the best.
We're the best group.
descriptive phrase
Hydrogen Bonding
INFLECTION
1. a change in the form of a word (usually by adding a suffix) to indicate a change in its grammatical function
2. the patterns of stress and intonation in a language
3. deviation from a straight or normal course
4. a manner of speaking in which the loudness or pitch or tone of the voice is modified
(noun)
• Inflecting a noun, pronoun, adjective or determiner is known as DECLINING it.
The affixes may express number, case, or gender.
• Inflecting a verb is called CONJUGATING it.
The affixes may express tense, mood, voice, or aspect.
An organized list of the inflected forms of a given lexeme is also called its declension, or conjugation, as the case may be.
declension of the English pronoun "I"
The pronoun "who" is also inflected in formal English according to case. Its declension is defective.
The conjugation of the verb to "arrive" in the indicative mood:
INFLECTION
- is most typically realized by adding an inflectional morpheme (that is, affixation) to the base form (either the root or a stem).
Van der Waals Bonding
SECONDARY / VAN DER WAALS / PHYSICAL BONDS
Bonds that are relatively weak
Bonding energies are relatively small
Exists between virtually all atoms or molecules
Evidenced for the inert gases, which have stable electron structures
Between molecules in molecular structures that are covalently bonded
Normally atomic or molecular
dipoles
are involved.
the separation of charge in a bond or a molecule with a positively charged end and a negatively charged end
10 kJ/mol (0.1 eV/atom)
The bonding results from the attraction between the positive end of one dipole and the negative region of an adjacent one
"between"
forces "between" molecules
Fluctuating Induced Dipole Bonds
A dipole may be created or induced in an atom or molecule that is normally electrically symmetric
Constant vibrational motion can cause distortions and the creation of small electric dipoles
These dipoles produce a displacement that also induces other dipoles
Forces may exist between large numbers of atoms or molecules
Forces are temporary and fluctuate with time
weakest intermolecular bond
Polar
Molecule-
Induced
Dipole
Bonds
Polar Molecules - asymmetrical arranged positively and negatively charged regions creates permanent dipole moments
- can also induce dipoles in adjacent nonpolar molecules, and a bond will form as a result of attractive forces between the two molecules.
- the magnitude of this bond will be greater than for fluctuating induced dipoles.
Permanent Dipole Bonds
permanent dipoles of the assymetric regions of the molecules attract each other
HYDROGEN BONDING
The strongest secondary bonding type
Special case of polar molecule bonding
Occurs between molecules in which hydrogen is covalently bonded to fluorine (HF), oxygen (H2O), and nitrogen (NH3)
Melting and boiling temperatures for hydrogen fluoride and water are abnormally high because of
hydrogen bonding
HYDROGEN BONDING
Dutch theoretical physicist and thermodynamicist famous for his work on an equation of state for gases and liquids
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910
Full transcript