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Transcript of Neuroscience
Explore the physiological
roots and the results of our behaviors
a nerve cell-the basic building block of the nervous system
fatty substance that
covers the axon & speeds
the impulse process
receive messages and
send impulses toward the
the extension of the neuron--neural impulses travel here
end of neuron--information departs
a neural impulse--
The "ON" condition of a
the recharging phase
of a neuron
neuron is at rest,
can generate an
neurons fire with same intensity
Threshold--the stimulation needed to make a neuron fire
Hormones, the chemical messengers produced by the endocrine system
Endocrine System----chemical messenger
Neurotransmitters & Behavior
drug that boosts the effect of a
neurotransmitter---(aspirin & ibuprofen ----
Reflexes--the automatic response
to stimuli--Innate--such as??
triggers muscle contraction & affects learning & memory
hunger & sleep, arousal & mood
very low levels cause depression--
seasonal? fish oil, nuts, eggs, exercise,
sleep--avoid stimulants & alcohol
linked to pain & pleasure--produced in the pituitary gland
a substance that acts against and
blocks the function of a neurotransmitter (beta-blockers)
Central Nervous System
the brain & the spinal cord
Inward directed neurons that travel from sensory organs and body tissues to the CNS, brain, & spinal cord (millions)
Peripheral Nervous System
all the nerves that connect to the central nervous system
outward traveling neurons that carry messages to muscles and glands (millions)
located only in the CNS
and links motor & sensory neurons (billions)
100,000 neurons in a
section of the brain in an area the size of a grain of sand---making up more than 1 billion synaptic connections
adrenaline and noradrenaline (aka norepinephrine)
noradrenaline--"flight or fight" hormone--
responds to stress
Adrenaline (aka epinephrine)--for our purposes same as Noradrenaline
Pituitary Gland--connected to the hypothalamus
master gland of the endocrine system. Growth,
pregnancy, & with the hypothalamus controls
located in the neck--the master gland of metabolism. obesity, heart disease, depression, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, infertility
for emotion and physical development
estrogen & testosterone
destruction of the tissue of the brain
enables you to see, hear, smell, feel remember, think, speak, dream----
the brain analyzes itself
oldest & most basic part of the brain
controls autonomic functions--meaning?
connects the brain to the spinal cord
basic life support,
breathing, circulation, & swallowing
motor control & balance
vision, movement, & body movement
nerve fibers inside the brainstem. regulates arousal, sleep, awareness, connects to the cerebral cortex
relay center (SWITCHBOARD) between brainstem and cortex. Distributes information
memory, & sexual arousal
includes hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus
explicit memories---spatial memory
Allows us to find our car keys
amygdala---flight or fight response--fear & emotions
Hypothalamus--thirst, body temperature, sexual activity
This is what makes us human. Complex functions occur here
Cerebral Cortex--AKA Gray matter. Covers the outer portion of the brain. The most highly developed part of the brain. The "newest" part of the brain. This is where information processing occurs.
"Glue cells--support, nourish,
& protect neurons
neural fibers that connects the 2 hemispheres of the brain
visual processing center
part of the cerebral cortex on the top of the head
sensory input for touch & body position, as well as
touch, temperature, and taste
thought to be the
center for memory
about 75% of the cerebral cortex---it is dedicated to associating sensory memory inputs with stored memory
Describe the 5 brain areas that would be involved if you read this sentence a loud.
visual cortex--visual stimulation--receives written word
angular gyrus--transforms visual to auditory
Wernicke's area--interprets auditory code
Broca's area--controls speech muscles
motor cortex--actual pronunciation of the words
Broca's Area--in the frontal lobe
directs muscle movement
Wernicke's Area--in the temporal lobe--helps understand what is said
fruit fly 100,000
of how to use your body
Hot Dog eating contest
Peripheral Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Why are psychologists concerned with human biology?
Everything psychological is simultaneously biological
The brain's ultimate challenge?
How does the brain communicate and
Franz Gall & Phrenology
*the body is composed of cells
*nerve cells conduct electricity
*nerve cells communicate
*specific brain regions have
specific brain functions
*these specific brain regions create
our experience of sight, sound,
pain, passion, meaning,
*experiences make our brain adapt
Why do researchers
study other animals?
How does understanding
a rat brain help understand humans?
Chemical messengers that travel across
the synapse (aka synaptic gap) from one neuron to the next-----
Influences whether a neuron will generate
an action potential
September 29, 2015
Tuesday--September 29, 2015
The Nervous system's 2 major divisions
& the 3 type of neurons that send messages
The Endocrine system, its functions and
how it interacts with the nervous system
which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the strongest degree of relationship between 2 variables?
a, +0.59 b. +0.10 c. -0.10 d. -0.67 e. 0.00
which of the following is the weakest?
a. +1.00 b. +0.25 c. -0.12 d. -0.50 e. -0.99
unconscious & outside our awareness
The law of large numbers
small samples &
large standard deviation
standard deviation, again
If height & body weight are positively correlated, which of the following is true?
knowing a person's height, one can predict his or her weight
-key word "inheritance"---
September 20 & 21, 2016
What does biology have to do with how we behave?
Why are neurons important?
• Axon terminals
• Myelin sheath
• Nervous system
• Central nervous system
• Peripheral nervous system
• Somatic nervous system
• Autonomic nervous system
• Sympathetic nervous system
• Parasympathetic nervous system
• Endocrine system
• Adrenal glands
• Pituitary glands
• Thyroid Glands
• Ovaries & Testes
Since Malcolm has been taking a drug prescribed by his doctor, he no longer enjoys the little pleasures of life, such as eating and drinking. His doctor explains that this is because the drug:
inhibits release of dopamine.
triggers release of dopamine.
triggers release of ACh.
inhibits release of ACh.
Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took more time to travel a neural pathway than he might have anticipated. His observation provided evidence for the existence of:
The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to:
the parasympathetic nervous system.
When Sandy scalded her toe in a tub of hot water, the pain message was carried to her spinal cord by the __________ nervous system.
If your _____________ is destroyed, the left side of your brain could not control the movements of your right hand
In order to monitor electrical activity he brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n)
A bodybuilder friend suddenly seems to have grown several inches in height. You suspect that your friend's growth spurt has occurred because he has been using drugs that affect the:
I am a relatively slow-acting (but long lasting) chemical messenger carried throughout the body by the bloodstream. What am I?
If Dr. Rogers wishes to conduct experiment on the effects of stimulating the rewards centers of a rat's brain, he should insert an electrode into the:
Addictive drug cravings are likely to be associated with rewards centers in the :
After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is likely to have difficulty:
experiencing intense emotions
reading printed words
understanding what is being said
tasting food flavors
playing his guitar
the medulla is to the control of _____________ as the cerebellum is to the control of ____________.
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?
Jessica experienced difficulty keeping her balance after receving a blow to the back of her head. It is likely that she injured her:
Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to:
becoming violently aggressive
cower in fear
experience convulsive seizures
lapse into a coma
become sexually preoccupied
Central Nervous System
Peripheral nervous system
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system