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Neuroscience

BIology & Behavior
by

Ron Cook

on 29 September 2016

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Transcript of Neuroscience

WHY ARE PSYCHOLOGISTS CONCERNED WITH HUMAN BIOLOGY?
Neuroscience
Biological Psychologists
Explore the physiological
roots and the results of our behaviors
Neuron
100,000,000,000

a nerve cell-the basic building block of the nervous system
Dendrite
fatty substance that
covers the axon & speeds
the impulse process
Biological
behavior
Socio-cultural
Psycho
receive messages and
send impulses toward the
cell body

Axon
the extension of the neuron--neural impulses travel here
axon terminals
end of neuron--information departs
Myelin Sheath
Action Potential
a neural impulse--
The "ON" condition of a
neuron
refractory period
the recharging phase
of a neuron
resting potential
neuron is at rest,
can generate an
action potential
All-or-none
neurons fire with same intensity
Threshold--the stimulation needed to make a neuron fire
Hormones, the chemical messengers produced by the endocrine system
Endocrine System----chemical messenger
system.
Produces hormones
Neurotransmitters & Behavior
Acetylcholine
agonists
drug that boosts the effect of a
neurotransmitter---(aspirin & ibuprofen ----
copies acetycholine

Reflexes--the automatic response
to stimuli--Innate--such as??
triggers muscle contraction & affects learning & memory
Serotonin
hunger & sleep, arousal & mood
very low levels cause depression--
seasonal? fish oil, nuts, eggs, exercise,
sleep--avoid stimulants & alcohol
Endorphins
linked to pain & pleasure--produced in the pituitary gland
Antagonists
a substance that acts against and
blocks the function of a neurotransmitter (beta-blockers)
----blocks acetycholine
Nervous System--
electrochemical
communication system
Central Nervous System
the brain & the spinal cord
sensory neurons
Inward directed neurons that travel from sensory organs and body tissues to the CNS, brain, & spinal cord (millions)
Peripheral Nervous System
all the nerves that connect to the central nervous system
Nerve--neural
cable containing
many axons
Motor Neurons
outward traveling neurons that carry messages to muscles and glands (millions)
Interneurons
located only in the CNS
and links motor & sensory neurons (billions)
Neural Networks
100,000 neurons in a
section of the brain in an area the size of a grain of sand---making up more than 1 billion synaptic connections
releases
adrenaline and noradrenaline (aka norepinephrine)
noradrenaline--"flight or fight" hormone--
responds to stress
Adrenaline (aka epinephrine)--for our purposes same as Noradrenaline
Pituitary Gland--connected to the hypothalamus
master gland of the endocrine system. Growth,
pregnancy, & with the hypothalamus controls
hunger
located in the neck--the master gland of metabolism. obesity, heart disease, depression, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, infertility
Releases hormones
for emotion and physical development
estrogen & testosterone
Brain Lesion
destruction of the tissue of the brain
Electroencephalogram
THE BRAIN
enables you to see, hear, smell, feel remember, think, speak, dream----
the brain analyzes itself
PET SCAN
oldest & most basic part of the brain
controls autonomic functions--meaning?
connects the brain to the spinal cord
BRAINSTEM
MRI
FMRI
Medulla
basic life support,
breathing, circulation, & swallowing
Pons
respiratory rhythms
motor control & balance
Midbrain
vision, movement, & body movement
Reticular Formation
nerve fibers inside the brainstem. regulates arousal, sleep, awareness, connects to the cerebral cortex
Thalamus
relay center (SWITCHBOARD) between brainstem and cortex. Distributes information
regulates emotions,
memory, & sexual arousal
includes hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus
Hippocampus---
explicit memories---spatial memory
Allows us to find our car keys
amygdala---flight or fight response--fear & emotions
Hypothalamus--thirst, body temperature, sexual activity
This is what makes us human. Complex functions occur here
Cerebral Cortex--AKA Gray matter. Covers the outer portion of the brain. The most highly developed part of the brain. The "newest" part of the brain. This is where information processing occurs.
Glial Cells
"Glue cells--support, nourish,
& protect neurons
Frontal Lobes
Occipital lobes
neural fibers that connects the 2 hemispheres of the brain
visual processing center
parietal Lobe
part of the cerebral cortex on the top of the head
sensory input for touch & body position, as well as
touch, temperature, and taste
temporal lobe
thought to be the
center for memory
recall--sound perception
and interpretation
Association Areas
about 75% of the cerebral cortex---it is dedicated to associating sensory memory inputs with stored memory
Describe the 5 brain areas that would be involved if you read this sentence a loud.
visual cortex--visual stimulation--receives written word
angular gyrus--transforms visual to auditory
Wernicke's area--interprets auditory code
Broca's area--controls speech muscles
motor cortex--actual pronunciation of the words
Broca's Area--in the frontal lobe
directs muscle movement
Wernicke's Area--in the temporal lobe--helps understand what is said
fruit fly 100,000
Cockroach 1,000,000
Mouse 75,000,000
Cat 1,000,000,000
Chimpanzee 7,000,000,000
Elephant 23,000,000,000
Human 100,000,000,000

"little brain"--memories
of how to use your body
Propaganda?
Critical thinking---
Hot Dog eating contest
Endorphins
Peripheral Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Adrenal Gland
Cerebellum
Temporal Lobes
Oztoberfest
Acetylcholine
serotonin
Autonomic Nervous System
Reflexes
Medulla
Hippocampus

Prom
Serotonin
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Thyroid Glands
Reticular Formation
Hypothalamus
Occipital Lobes
Temporal Lobes

Why are psychologists concerned with human biology?
Everything psychological is simultaneously biological

The brain's ultimate challenge?
understanding itself

How does the brain communicate and
organize itself?


Franz Gall & Phrenology

*the body is composed of cells
*nerve cells conduct electricity
*nerve cells communicate
*specific brain regions have
specific brain functions
*these specific brain regions create
our experience of sight, sound,
pain, passion, meaning,
& memories
*experiences make our brain adapt

Why do researchers
study other animals?

How does understanding
a rat brain help understand humans?

Chemical messengers that travel across
the synapse (aka synaptic gap) from one neuron to the next-----

Influences whether a neuron will generate
an action potential
September 29, 2015

Review:
Neuron
Dendrite
Axon
Axon Terminal
Myelin Sheath
Action Potential
Refractory Period
Resting Potential;
All-or-none principle
Threshold
Synapse
Neurotransmitters
Endorphins
Acetylcholine
Serotonin
Tuesday--September 29, 2015
The Nervous system's 2 major divisions
& the 3 type of neurons that send messages

The Endocrine system, its functions and
how it interacts with the nervous system
EXPLICIT MEMORIES
which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the strongest degree of relationship between 2 variables?

a, +0.59 b. +0.10 c. -0.10 d. -0.67 e. 0.00
which of the following is the weakest?

a. +1.00 b. +0.25 c. -0.12 d. -0.50 e. -0.99
psychodynamic
unconscious & outside our awareness
The law of large numbers
small samples &
large standard deviation
overconfidence
standard deviation, again
If height & body weight are positively correlated, which of the following is true?
knowing a person's height, one can predict his or her weight
-key word "inheritance"---
DARWIN
September 20 & 21, 2016
What does biology have to do with how we behave?

Why are neurons important?
• Neuron

• Dendrite

• Axon

• Axon terminals

• Myelin sheath

• Synapse

• Neurotransmitters

• Acetylcholine

• Dopamine

• Serotonin

• Endorphins

• Nervous system

• Central nervous system

• Peripheral nervous system

• Nerves

• Somatic nervous system

• Autonomic nervous system

• Sympathetic nervous system

• Parasympathetic nervous system

• Reflexes

• Endocrine system

• Hormones

• Adrenal glands

• Pituitary glands

• Thyroid Glands

• Ovaries & Testes

Full transcript