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Neuroscience

BIology & Behavior
by

Ron Cook

on 5 October 2016

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Transcript of Neuroscience

WHY ARE PSYCHOLOGISTS CONCERNED WITH HUMAN BIOLOGY?
Neuroscience
Biological Psychologists
Explore the physiological
roots and the results of our behaviors
Neuron
100,000,000,000

a nerve cell-the basic building block of the nervous system
Dendrite
fatty substance that
covers the axon & speeds
the impulse process
Biological
behavior
Socio-cultural
Psycho
receive messages and
send impulses toward the
cell body

Axon
the extension of the neuron--neural impulses travel here
axon terminals
end of neuron--information departs
Myelin Sheath
Action Potential
a neural impulse--
The "ON" condition of a
neuron
refractory period
the recharging phase
of a neuron
resting potential
neuron is at rest,
can generate an
action potential
All-or-none
neurons fire with same intensity
Threshold--the stimulation needed to make a neuron fire
Hormones, the chemical messengers produced by the endocrine system
Endocrine System----chemical messenger
system.
Produces hormones
Neurotransmitters & Behavior
Acetylcholine
agonists
drug that boosts the effect of a
neurotransmitter---(aspirin & ibuprofen ----
copies acetycholine

Reflexes--the automatic response
to stimuli--Innate--such as??
triggers muscle contraction & affects learning & memory
Serotonin
hunger & sleep, arousal & mood
very low levels cause depression--
seasonal? fish oil, nuts, eggs, exercise,
sleep--avoid stimulants & alcohol
Endorphins
linked to pain & pleasure--produced in the pituitary gland
Antagonists
a substance that acts against and
blocks the function of a neurotransmitter (beta-blockers)
----blocks acetycholine
Nervous System--
electrochemical
communication system
Central Nervous System
the brain & the spinal cord
sensory neurons
Inward directed neurons that travel from sensory organs and body tissues to the CNS, brain, & spinal cord (millions)
Peripheral Nervous System
all the nerves that connect to the central nervous system
Nerve--neural
cable containing
many axons
Motor Neurons
outward traveling neurons that carry messages to muscles and glands (millions)
Interneurons
located only in the CNS
and links motor & sensory neurons (billions)
Neural Networks
100,000 neurons in a
section of the brain in an area the size of a grain of sand---making up more than 1 billion synaptic connections
releases
adrenaline and noradrenaline (aka norepinephrine)
noradrenaline--"flight or fight" hormone--
responds to stress
Adrenaline (aka epinephrine)--for our purposes same as Noradrenaline
Pituitary Gland--connected to the hypothalamus
master gland of the endocrine system. Growth,
pregnancy, & with the hypothalamus controls
hunger
located in the neck--the master gland of metabolism. obesity, heart disease, depression, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, infertility
Releases hormones
for emotion and physical development
estrogen & testosterone
Brain Lesion
destruction of the tissue of the brain
Electroencephalogram
THE BRAIN
enables you to see, hear, smell, feel remember, think, speak, dream----
the brain analyzes itself
PET SCAN
oldest & most basic part of the brain
controls autonomic functions--meaning?
connects the brain to the spinal cord
BRAINSTEM
MRI
FMRI
Medulla
basic life support,
breathing, circulation, & swallowing
Pons
respiratory rhythms
motor control & balance
Midbrain
vision, movement, & body movement
Reticular Formation
nerve fibers inside the brainstem. regulates arousal, sleep, awareness, connects to the cerebral cortex
Thalamus
relay center (SWITCHBOARD) between brainstem and cortex. Distributes information
regulates emotions,
memory, & sexual arousal
includes hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus
Hippocampus---
explicit memories---spatial memory
Allows us to find our car keys
amygdala---flight or fight response--fear & emotions
Hypothalamus--thirst, body temperature, sexual activity
This is what makes us human. Complex functions occur here
Cerebral Cortex--AKA Gray matter. Covers the outer portion of the brain. The most highly developed part of the brain. The "newest" part of the brain. This is where information processing occurs.
Glial Cells
"Glue cells--support, nourish,
& protect neurons
Frontal Lobes
Occipital lobes
neural fibers that connects the 2 hemispheres of the brain
visual processing center
parietal Lobe
part of the cerebral cortex on the top of the head
sensory input for touch & body position, as well as
touch, temperature, and taste
temporal lobe
thought to be the
center for memory
recall--sound perception
and interpretation
Association Areas
about 75% of the cerebral cortex---it is dedicated to associating sensory memory inputs with stored memory
Describe the 5 brain areas that would be involved if you read this sentence a loud.
visual cortex--visual stimulation--receives written word
angular gyrus--transforms visual to auditory
Wernicke's area--interprets auditory code
Broca's area--controls speech muscles
motor cortex--actual pronunciation of the words
Broca's Area--in the frontal lobe
directs muscle movement
Wernicke's Area--in the temporal lobe--helps understand what is said
fruit fly 100,000
Cockroach 1,000,000
Mouse 75,000,000
Cat 1,000,000,000
Chimpanzee 7,000,000,000
Elephant 23,000,000,000
Human 100,000,000,000

"little brain"--memories
of how to use your body
Propaganda?
Critical thinking---
Hot Dog eating contest
Endorphins
Peripheral Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Adrenal Gland
Cerebellum
Temporal Lobes
Oztoberfest
Acetylcholine
serotonin
Autonomic Nervous System
Reflexes
Medulla
Hippocampus

Prom
Serotonin
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Thyroid Glands
Reticular Formation
Hypothalamus
Occipital Lobes
Temporal Lobes

Why are psychologists concerned with human biology?
Everything psychological is simultaneously biological

The brain's ultimate challenge?
understanding itself

How does the brain communicate and
organize itself?


Franz Gall & Phrenology

*the body is composed of cells
*nerve cells conduct electricity
*nerve cells communicate
*specific brain regions have
specific brain functions
*these specific brain regions create
our experience of sight, sound,
pain, passion, meaning,
& memories
*experiences make our brain adapt

Why do researchers
study other animals?

How does understanding
a rat brain help understand humans?

Chemical messengers that travel across
the synapse (aka synaptic gap) from one neuron to the next-----

Influences whether a neuron will generate
an action potential
September 29, 2015

Review:
Neuron
Dendrite
Axon
Axon Terminal
Myelin Sheath
Action Potential
Refractory Period
Resting Potential;
All-or-none principle
Threshold
Synapse
Neurotransmitters
Endorphins
Acetylcholine
Serotonin
Tuesday--September 29, 2015
The Nervous system's 2 major divisions
& the 3 type of neurons that send messages

The Endocrine system, its functions and
how it interacts with the nervous system
EXPLICIT MEMORIES
which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the strongest degree of relationship between 2 variables?

a, +0.59 b. +0.10 c. -0.10 d. -0.67 e. 0.00
which of the following is the weakest?

a. +1.00 b. +0.25 c. -0.12 d. -0.50 e. -0.99
psychodynamic
unconscious & outside our awareness
The law of large numbers
small samples &
large standard deviation
overconfidence
standard deviation, again
If height & body weight are positively correlated, which of the following is true?
knowing a person's height, one can predict his or her weight
-key word "inheritance"---
DARWIN
September 20 & 21, 2016
What does biology have to do with how we behave?

Why are neurons important?
• Neuron

• Dendrite

• Axon

• Axon terminals

• Myelin sheath

• Synapse

• Neurotransmitters

• Acetylcholine

• Dopamine

• Serotonin

• Endorphins

• Nervous system

• Central nervous system

• Peripheral nervous system

• Nerves

• Somatic nervous system

• Autonomic nervous system

• Sympathetic nervous system

• Parasympathetic nervous system

• Reflexes

• Endocrine system

• Hormones

• Adrenal glands

• Pituitary glands

• Thyroid Glands

• Ovaries & Testes



Since Malcolm has been taking a drug prescribed by his doctor, he no longer enjoys the little pleasures of life, such as eating and drinking. His doctor explains that this is because the drug:

inhibits release of dopamine.
triggers release of dopamine.
triggers release of ACh.
inhibits release of ACh.


Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took more time to travel a neural pathway than he might have anticipated. His observation provided evidence for the existence of:

association areas.
synaptic gaps.
interneurons.
glial cells.






The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to:

motor neurons.
neurotransmitters.
interneurons.
the parasympathetic nervous system.





When Sandy scalded her toe in a tub of hot water, the pain message was carried to her spinal cord by the __________ nervous system.

somatic
sympathetic
central
parasympathetic
If your _____________ is destroyed, the left side of your brain could not control the movements of your right hand

brainstem
amygdala
hippocampus
angular gyrus
corpus callosum
In order to monitor electrical activity he brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n)

MRI
PET Scan
EEG
Brain lesion
A bodybuilder friend suddenly seems to have grown several inches in height. You suspect that your friend's growth spurt has occurred because he has been using drugs that affect the:

pituitary gland
thalamus
adrenal glands
medulla
I am a relatively slow-acting (but long lasting) chemical messenger carried throughout the body by the bloodstream. What am I?

a hormone
a neurotransmitter
acetycholine
dopamine
If Dr. Rogers wishes to conduct experiment on the effects of stimulating the rewards centers of a rat's brain, he should insert an electrode into the:

thalamus
sensory cortex
hypothalamus
corpus callosum
Addictive drug cravings are likely to be associated with rewards centers in the :

thalamus
cerebellum
reticular formation
limbic system
angular gyrus
After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is likely to have difficulty:

experiencing intense emotions
reading printed words
understanding what is being said
tasting food flavors
playing his guitar
the medulla is to the control of _____________ as the cerebellum is to the control of ____________.

eating: sleeping
breathing: walking
emotion: motivation
memory: attention
hearing: seeing
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?

frontal lobes
limbic system
brainstem
corpus callosum
Jessica experienced difficulty keeping her balance after receving a blow to the back of her head. It is likely that she injured her:

medulla
thalamus
hypothalamus
cerebellum
Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to:

becoming violently aggressive
cower in fear
experience convulsive seizures
lapse into a coma
become sexually preoccupied
Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine
Dopamine
Serotonin
Endorphins
Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Peripheral nervous system
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system
Medulla
Thalamus
Hippocampus
Frontal lobes
Occipital lobes
Parietal lobes
Temporal lobes





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