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Accident Causation Theories and Concepts

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Kaaru Bancale

on 14 July 2014

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Transcript of Accident Causation Theories and Concepts

ACCIDENT CAUSATION
THEORIES & CONCEPTS

Why
do
accidents
happen
Most Widely Used Theories of Accident Causation
Human Factors
Theory
Accident / Incident
Theory
Epidemiological
Theory
System Theory
Combination
Theory
Behavioral Theory
-
Herbert W. Heinrich
, an early pioneer of accident prevention and industrial safety


-He studied
75,000
industrial accidents.


-
88%
of Industrial Accidents are caused by
unsafe acts committed by fellow workers.

-
10%
of industrial accidents are caused by
unsafe conditions.


-
2%
of industrial accidents are
unavoidable .
Domino Theory
"
Heinrich’ Axioms
of Industrial Safety"
1.
Injuries result from a completed series of factors, one of which is the accident itself.
2.
An accident can occur only as the result of an unsafe act by a person and/or a physical or mechanical hazard.
3.
Most accidents are the result of unsafe behavior by people.
4.
An unsafe act by a person or an unsafe condition does not always immediately result in an accident/injury.
"
Heinrich’ Axioms
of Industrial Safety"
6.
The severity of the injury is largely fortuitous and the accident that caused it is preventable.
7.
Best accident prevention techniques are analogous to best quality / productivity techniques.
8.
Management should assume safety responsibilities.
9.
The supervisor is the key person in the prevention of industrial accidents.
10.
Cost of accidents include both direct costs and indirect costs.

1.
Injuries result from a series of preceding factors.
2.
Accidents occur as the result of physical hazard or an unsafe act.
3.
Most accidents are the result of unsafe behavior.
4.
Unsafe acts and hazards do not always result in immediate accidents and injuries.
5.
Understanding why people commit unsafe acts helps to establish guidelines for corrective actions.


5 Factors
in the Sequence
of Events Leading to
Accidents
1.
Ancestry and social environment
2.
Fault of person
3.
Unsafe act/mechanical or physical hazard
4.
Accident
5.
Injury

"Overload"
1.

E
nvironmental Factors
2
.

I
nternal Factors
3.

S
ituational Factors
4.
Worker's Capacity

"
Inappropriate Response"
1.

D
etecting a hazard but not correcting it
2.

R
emoving safeguards from Machines and equipment
3.

I
gnoring Safety

"Inappropriate Activities"
1.

P
erforming tasks without the requisite training
2.

M
isjudging the degree of risk
3.

I
nvolved with a given task

Petersen’s Extension to the Human Factors Theory

Adds new elements:
Ergonomic Traps
Decision to Err
System Failures
Petersen’s Extension
to the Human Factors Theory
Epidemiological Theory
Susceptibility of people
Perceptions
Environmental Factors
Risk Assessment by individuals
Peer pressure
Priorities of the supervisor
Attitudes can cause or prevent accident conditions
Systems Theory
of Causation
-
System
is a group of interacting and interrelated components that form a
unified whole.

Host (People) Agent (Machinery) Environment

-The likelihood of an accident occurring is
determined
by how these components
interact.
-Changes in the patterns of interaction can
increase
or
decrease
the probability of an
accident
occurring
5 Factors to Consider

Job requirements
The workers’ abilities and limitations
The gain if the task is successfully accomplished.
The loss if the task is attempted but fail
The loss if the task is not attempted
Petersen’s Extension to the
Human Factors Theory

#There is often a degree of difference between any theory of accident causation and reality.

#The actual cause may combine parts of several different models.

#CombinationTheory
#TOPPlayer
#deadlock631
15,696,631

Often referred to as
Behavior Based Safety (BBS).

The most prominent proponent is
E. Scott Geller
, a senior partner of Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. and a professor of psychology.

Behavioral Theory

1. Intervention
2. Identification of external factors
3. Motivation to behave in the desired manner
4. Focus on the positive consequences of appropriate behavior
5. Application of the scientific method
6. Integration of information
7. Planned interventions

7 Principles by Geller
S
L
E
E
P
C
E
N
A
L
A
R
Drugs and
Alcoholism
Drugs and alcohol
are the root contributing cause of many workplace accidents every year.
Approximately 77%
of drug users are employed
Clinical
DePres
Sion

--
Clinical depression
is an invisible problem in the workplace.

--It can be a
major cause of accidents.

--
One in 20
people
suffer
from
clinical depression
which is the
root cause
of more than 200 Million lost workdays annually.

1.
Persistent dreary moods (sadness, anxiety, nervousness)

2.
Signs of too little sleep

3.
Sleeping on the job or persistent drowsiness.

4.
Sudden weight loss or gain

5.
General loss of interest

6.
Restlessness, inability to concentrate or irritability

7.
Chronic physical problems (headaches, digestive disorders, etc.)

8.
Forgetfulness or an inability to make simple decisions

9.
Persistent feeling of guilt

10.
Feelings of low self-worth

11.
Focus on death or talk of suicide

Warning Signs of Clinical Depression
Management
Failures and
Accident
Causation
Management Failures and Accident Causation
1.
Failure to ensure a safe and healthy work environment.

2.
Supervisors play a critical role in making sure that employees work in a safe and healthy environment.

Role of Supervisor in Workplace Safety and Health
1.
Orienting new employees to the safe way to do their jobs

2.
Ensuring that new and experienced employees receive the safety and health training they need on a continual basis.

3.
Monitoring employee performance and enforcing safety rules and regulations.
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