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Accident Causation Theories and Concepts
Transcript of Accident Causation Theories and Concepts
THEORIES & CONCEPTS
Most Widely Used Theories of Accident Causation
Accident / Incident
Herbert W. Heinrich
, an early pioneer of accident prevention and industrial safety
of Industrial Accidents are caused by
unsafe acts committed by fellow workers.
of industrial accidents are caused by
of industrial accidents are
of Industrial Safety"
Injuries result from a completed series of factors, one of which is the accident itself.
An accident can occur only as the result of an unsafe act by a person and/or a physical or mechanical hazard.
Most accidents are the result of unsafe behavior by people.
An unsafe act by a person or an unsafe condition does not always immediately result in an accident/injury.
of Industrial Safety"
The severity of the injury is largely fortuitous and the accident that caused it is preventable.
Best accident prevention techniques are analogous to best quality / productivity techniques.
Management should assume safety responsibilities.
The supervisor is the key person in the prevention of industrial accidents.
Cost of accidents include both direct costs and indirect costs.
Injuries result from a series of preceding factors.
Accidents occur as the result of physical hazard or an unsafe act.
Most accidents are the result of unsafe behavior.
Unsafe acts and hazards do not always result in immediate accidents and injuries.
Understanding why people commit unsafe acts helps to establish guidelines for corrective actions.
in the Sequence
of Events Leading to
Ancestry and social environment
Fault of person
Unsafe act/mechanical or physical hazard
etecting a hazard but not correcting it
emoving safeguards from Machines and equipment
erforming tasks without the requisite training
isjudging the degree of risk
nvolved with a given task
Petersen’s Extension to the Human Factors Theory
Adds new elements:
Decision to Err
to the Human Factors Theory
Susceptibility of people
Risk Assessment by individuals
Priorities of the supervisor
Attitudes can cause or prevent accident conditions
is a group of interacting and interrelated components that form a
Host (People) Agent (Machinery) Environment
-The likelihood of an accident occurring is
by how these components
-Changes in the patterns of interaction can
the probability of an
5 Factors to Consider
The workers’ abilities and limitations
The gain if the task is successfully accomplished.
The loss if the task is attempted but fail
The loss if the task is not attempted
Petersen’s Extension to the
Human Factors Theory
#There is often a degree of difference between any theory of accident causation and reality.
#The actual cause may combine parts of several different models.
Often referred to as
Behavior Based Safety (BBS).
The most prominent proponent is
E. Scott Geller
, a senior partner of Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. and a professor of psychology.
2. Identification of external factors
3. Motivation to behave in the desired manner
4. Focus on the positive consequences of appropriate behavior
5. Application of the scientific method
6. Integration of information
7. Planned interventions
7 Principles by Geller
Drugs and alcohol
are the root contributing cause of many workplace accidents every year.
of drug users are employed
is an invisible problem in the workplace.
--It can be a
major cause of accidents.
One in 20
which is the
of more than 200 Million lost workdays annually.
Persistent dreary moods (sadness, anxiety, nervousness)
Signs of too little sleep
Sleeping on the job or persistent drowsiness.
Sudden weight loss or gain
General loss of interest
Restlessness, inability to concentrate or irritability
Chronic physical problems (headaches, digestive disorders, etc.)
Forgetfulness or an inability to make simple decisions
Persistent feeling of guilt
Feelings of low self-worth
Focus on death or talk of suicide
Warning Signs of Clinical Depression
Management Failures and Accident Causation
Failure to ensure a safe and healthy work environment.
Supervisors play a critical role in making sure that employees work in a safe and healthy environment.
Role of Supervisor in Workplace Safety and Health
Orienting new employees to the safe way to do their jobs
Ensuring that new and experienced employees receive the safety and health training they need on a continual basis.
Monitoring employee performance and enforcing safety rules and regulations.