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Unit 6: Africa

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Vicki sobol

on 10 March 2016

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Transcript of Unit 6: Africa

AFRICA
Unit 6
Geography of Africa
The Influence of Geography:
Africa is the second largest continent in the world
Its size and location contributes to its wide range of climates, vegetation, and terrains.
This variety has greatly influenced the diversity of culture found in Africa
Equator:
band of tropical rain forest
Savanna:
Grassy plains, North and South of the equator. Most populated regions
Desert
: Sahara desert is the largest
Geographic Patterns:
These vegetation regions affect how people live and how they make a living
How would life differ for someone who lives in Egypt versus someone who lives in Congo or Niger?
Early Civilizations of Africa:
Resources Spur Trade:
Africa's mineral wealth has
spurred trade across the continent
Salt, gold, iron, and copper were particularly valuable items and brought great wealth to African cities
Question:
What is mineral wealth?
Trade linked Africa to other countries
Deserts made trade hard at first, but then new technology emerged:
The
Camel
Camels could carry heavy loads and plod 20 to 30 miles per day, often without water
People and Ideas Migrate:
Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that Africa was the home of the earliest ancestors of modern people
In spite of geographic barriers, various members of these groups migrated all over Africa and beyond
The Sahara Dries Out:
First the
Paleolithic
people developed skills as hunters and gathers, then the
Neolithic
people began farming and domesticating animals
Paleolithic:
Neolithic:
Old stone age, hunters and gatherers
New stone age, farmers and staying put near water
At one point, the Sahara was well-watered, and full of forests
How might historians know this?
(finding artifacts, like rock paintings)
Climate change slowly dried out the Sahara
As the land dried out, the desert spread
Process is known as
desertification
When fertile land becomes desert
Desertification motivates people to migrate (move)
The Bantu Migrations:
Migrations for thousands of years is what caused Africa's diversity
Scholars traced these migrations by studying language patterns
Example:
West African people spoke a variety of languages deriving from a single common language
Root language is called:
Bantu
This is why it's called the Bantu migrations!
Bantus migrate to southern Africa -> spread their skills in farming, ironworking, and domesticating animals
Existing cultures blend with Bantus = Cultural blending
Influence of Bantu-speakers still seen today
Kingdoms of West Africa:
Trading centers in Africa developed over time, as trade extended beyond village borders.
Between 800 and 1600, several powerful kingdoms won control of these prosperous cities and their trade
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
Trade in the Sahara:
As the Sahara dries out, Neolithic people migrate south toward the savanna
100 BCE = settled agricultural villages expanding, especially around Lake Chad
Changes from farming villages -> towns -> cities
Farming villages began to produce a
surplus
Surplus: more food than they need
They began trading surplus food with other villages
This created trade routes!
Africa becomes connected within its continent, and the rest of the world
Trading for Gold and Salt:
Gold and salt dominated the Sahara trade
Gold:
Available in present-day Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal
Found in soil along rivers in various forms
gold nuggets and dust
Experts estimate between 500-1600 BCE, eight tons of gold were exported annually
Salt
Equally important as gold
Need for health and food preservation
Sahara has abundance of salt
People even built home out of it
Salt is scarce in the savanna
Merchants would pay 1 lb of gold for 1 lb of salt
Kingdoms & Trading States of East Africa
Axum
Ethiopia
Swahili City-States
Great Zimbabwe
East Africa
Axum: Center of Goods and Ideas
Ethiopia: A Christian Outpost
The Swahili City-States
Great Zimbabwe
Ghana
Founded about 400 CE
Became an important center for trade within 400 years
Ghana controlled all the important trade routes from the Sudan to North Africa
Known as the "the Land of Gold", but never actually owned any gold fields
Instead: controlled the trade in gold
Gold = Power
HOW GHANA MADE THEIR MONEY:
The gold came from a region near the Senegal River. People there has much gold, but no salt, and they needed salt to live. Arab traders on camel caravans carried their goods to the people near the Senegal River in the south. They they traded salt for gold. Next, the caravan turned north again to trade with their gold. On both trips, they traveled through Kumbi, the largest city in Ghana. The government of Ghana taxed the caravan each way. Both the Arabs from the north and the forest people from the south paid tribute to the king of Ghana.
By 1070, Ghana was one of the most powerful empires in the world
Taxes from trade = a lot of money for the king
He could afford to keep 200,000 warriors
Large army gave Ghana great power; Ghana created peace in W. Africa with this power
Ghana invited Muslim teachers to begin school
Many people converted to Islam, but the rulers did not
This started a war, and led to Ghana's decline
Mali
Existed as early as 1000 CE
When Ghana lost its power, Mali formed a new empire
Mali also took control of trade routes
Sundiata Keita:
man most responsible for Mali's rise to greatness
He took control of the gold fields
His armies swept across Africa
Divided his kingdom into provinces
Mansa Musa
: king of Mali when it was most powerful
Became a Muslim
Set up center of Islamic learning at Timbuktu
Ran kingdom well
Made pilgrimage to Mecca
After Mansa Musa died, civil war broke out in Mali
Within 150 years the great empire fell, gave rise to Songhai
Songhai
Already existed in the 800s, but did not become powerful until the 1400s
Like Ghana and Mali, became powerful by controlling gold and salt trade
Sonni Ali
: greatest king
1464-1492, never lost a battle
Made Songhai the largest empire that W. Africa ever had
Divided empire into provinces
Other countries wanted Songhai's riches and attacked them.
In 1596, Songhai fell, the empire broke apart, and West Africa was never united again
Extend from the mountains of present-day Ethiopia to the sun-bleached shores of the Red Sea in present-day Eritrea
People of Axum were descended from:
African farmers
People from Middle East
Brought Jewish traditions through Arabia
Merging of cultures gave rise to unique written and spoken language:
Geez
Trade Brings Wealth:
Kingdom of Axum profited from the location of its two main cities:
Port of Adulis on the Red Sea
Upland capital of Axum
Axum commanded a triangular trade network that connected Africa, India, and the Med. world
Variety of goods and enslaved people came in and out of the markets in these cities:
From interior Africa: ivory, animal hides, and gold
S. African Coast: iron, spices, precious stones, cotton cloth from India
Ships carried these goods to the Red Sea, trade with Med. Sea
Axum Converts to Christianity:
In these great centers of international trade, Greek, Egyptian, Arab, and Jewish merchants mingled with traders from Africa, India, and other regions
300s, Christianity reached the region
King Ezana converts
After converting, King made Christianity the official religion of Axum
Old temples were replaced with Christian churches
At first, Christianity strengthened Axum
Created strong cultural ties across much of the continent
BUT people on the trade routes were not Christian
This isolated Axum on the trade routes
Civil war and economic decline combined to weaken Axum, they slowly declined
Axum's political and economic power faded, but its cultural and religious influence did not disappear
This legacy survived among the peoples of the interior uplands, in what is today northern Ethiopia
Axum's empire was only a portion of the modern day nation, but Axumite kings used
Ethiopia
(a greek word) to describe their kingdom
Isolated Ethiopia
Ethiopia surrounded by mountains
Descendants of the Axumites were able to maintain their independence for centuries
Their success was due in part to the
unifying
power of their Christian faith
Gave them a unique sense of identity
Helped established a distinct culture
Example of distinct culture:
The churches of Lalibela
King Lalibela came to power
He directed the building of eleven churches
carved from ground level downward into solid rock
Still exist today
When Axum declined, a string of commercial cities gradually arose along the East Africa Coast
Kilwa, Mogadishu, and Sofala
These city-states were under control of local African rulers
Arab and Persian merchants set up Muslim communities here
These "port cities" were used for trade
These city-states were essentially in the
Indian Ocean Trade
Traders used the monsoon winds to travel by sea
Trade was beneficial to merchants, and local rulers who were able to build strong city-states
Successful East African international trade led to the emergence of a vibrant culture and new language:
Swahili
Traders from Indian Ocean Trade began to settle here, and a vibrant culture was created
Example
Muslim traders settle in E. Africa
Arabic = Language of Islam
Arabic + Swahili language
= Swahili
The world Swahili comes from an Arabic word meaning "of the coast"
Question:
How did trade influence the city-states of East Africa?
Trade brought people from different cultures to the cities, which led to the spread of Islam in the region, and the development of the language Swahili
Inland Africa
The word
zimbabwe
come from a Bantu-based word that means "stone houses"
Great Zimbabwe built by Bantu speakers between 900 and 1500
Brought with them iron, mining methods, and improved farming skills
Early settlers raised cattle and built stone enclosures to protect animals
Later, build large walls and palaces
Capital of Zimbabwe reaches height around 1300
By then, it had tapped nearby gold resources
Created profitable commercial (trade) links
Archaeologists have found beads from India, porcelain from China
Shows Zimbabwe was apart of a trade network that reached across the Indian Ocean
Very little is known about their government
Studying architecture and artifacts, we know the ruler was a god-king who had people beneath him help rule
Much about Great Zimbabwe is left unknown
Decline
By 1500, Zimbabwe in decline
Some think population grew too great
Civil war and lower trade probably contributed as well
By then, the Portuguese were pushing in trying to find gold
The Great Enclosure
Imperialism in Africa
Genocide in Africa
Imperialism:
What is it?
Imperialism
: the domination by one country of the
political, economic, or cultural life
of another country or region
Building empires would be an example of imperialism
You have to dominate one country/region to build an empire
By the 1800s, Europe gained considerable power in the world
Thanks to the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution greatly enriched European countries
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was one reason why imperialism spread
The Industrial Revolution was an important change in the way people work
People created new inventions that made life easier
Produce more goods quicker, with less laborers
Before the Revolution
Workers made things by hand in their homes
People used their own strength/animals to provide power
After the Revolution
Now, people began to work in factories and use machines to produce goods
Use steam engines, railroads, etc
Places where the Industrial Revolution occurred
England, United States, France, Germany, Japan
Industrialized countries are the ones make the finished goods, and therefore make the money
Where do these countries get their raw goods?
How did Industrialism help Imperialism?
Factory owners in industrialized nations need the natural resources and raw materials of other countries
To keep their factories running, they need:
Coal, iron ore, gold, silver, tin, and copper
Industrialized countries don't have all of these resources they need...
They get it from "weaker" non-industrialized countries
AKA: Africa, Asia
Factories producing these goods also need a place to sell products
Create colonies in other "weaker" lands to sell products
The Scramble for Africa
Also known as the Partition of Africa, or the Conquest of Africa
The
invasion
and
occupation
,
colonization
and
annexation
of African territory by European powers

Before the Scramble:
European colonies did not exist
Africa had strong trading relations
Esp: Egypt, cotton market

After the Scramble:
Dr. Livingstone and Henry Stanley were famous explorers the "put Africa on the map" for Europeans
Belgium made efforts to colonize first, then others countries became interested
Europeans held Berlin Conference to claim territory in Africa and avoid war
No Africans represented at the meeting

Africa after the Scramble
North Africa
sub-Sahara
Southern Tip
Three regions:
Between 1945 and 1900, more than 50 African countries became independent nations
Many different cultures throughout Africa
Africans wanted their independence from Europe
Struggled to get it
The struggle for Africans to gain their independence =
African Nationalism
Pan-African Movement set up to help Africa get independence
The Pan-Africa Movement:
Began in 1900
Met several times to plan for the political independence of Africa
They wanted Africans to achieve two things:
Economic Strength
Political Peace

The group trained people to become new leaders of African nations
Ethnic Cleansing:
Rid of unwanted members of an ethnic or religious group in order to establish a homogeneous area
Deportation
Displacement
Mass killing (genocide)
1950/60s - European colonies are dismantled
Many new nations won independence in Africa
Nations are independent, BUT the people are not united
Very diverse ethnic groups
After Independence:
A single ethnic group often dominated a nation's gov't and economy at the expense of other groups
Result: several African nations suffered internal conflicts and civil war
SOUTH AFRICA
The struggle for freedom was different in South Africa compared to other places
In 1910, South Africa achieved self-rule from Britain. Freedom, however was limited to white settlers. The black majority was denied the right to vote. Whites made up less than 20% of the population but controlled the government and the economy. The white-minority government passed racial laws that severely restricted the black majority
(Yellow represents about 20%)
Division in South Africa
Under apartheid, all South Africans were registered by race:
- Black
- White
- Colored (people of mixed races)
- Asian
Supporters claimed that it would allow each race to develop its own culture
In reality, it was designed to protect white control over South Africa
Apartheid for Nonwhites
Under apartheid, nonwhites faced many restrictions. Blacks were treated like foreigners in their own land. Under the pass laws they had to get permission to travel. Other laws banned marriages between the races and stipulated segregated restaurants, beaches, and schools. Black workers were paid less than whites for the same job. Blacks could not own land in most areas. Low wages and inferior schooling condemned most blacks to poverty.
The Sharpeville Massacre
The African National Congress (ANC) was the main organization that opposed apartheid and led the struggle for majority rule. This group organized marches, boycotts, and strikes to protest apartheid.
In 1960, police gunned down 69 men, women, and children during a peaceful demonstration Sharpeville, a black township. The government then outlawed the ANC and cracked down on groups that opposed apartheid.
The impact...
The Sharpeville Massacre and crackdown pushed the ANC to shift from nonviolent protest to armed struggle. Nelson Mandela, an ANC leader, first mobilized young South Africans to peacefully resist apartheid laws. As the government grew violent, Mandela joined ANC militants who called for armed struggle against white-minority government. Mandela was eventually arrested and imprisoned with a life sentence, but he remained a popular leader and powerful symbol of the struggle for freedom.
RWANDA
SUDAN
The small nation of Rwanda, in Central Africa, faced one of Africa deadliest civil wars. The Rwandan people included two main groups:
Hutus and Tutsis
The Hutus were the majority group, but the minority Tutsis had long dominated Rwanda. Both groups spoke the same language, but they had different traditions. After independence, tensions between these two groups simmered.
Tensions worsened in the early 1990s. In 1994, extremist Hutu officials urged civilians to kill their Tutsi and moderate Hutu neighbors. Around 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were slaughtered. Another 3 million of Rwanda's 8 million people lost their homes to destructive mobs. As the death toll rose, the international community failed to act. After several months, France sent in troops to stop the killing.
With assistance from the United Nations, Rwanda set about rebuilding and recovering from the horrors of genocide. Those accused of genocide faced trials in an international court. Hutus and Tutsis had to find ways to live peacefully. World leaders pledged to stop and future genocide wherever it might occur. Their readiness to do this, however, was limited.
After independence, Sudan's Arab Muslim north dominated the non-Muslim, non-Arab south. Arab-led governments enacted laws and policies that discriminated against non-Muslims and against other ethnic groups. For example, the government tried to impose Islamic law even in non-Muslim areas. For decades, rebel groups in the south battled northern domination. War, drought, and famine caused millions of deaths and forced many more to flee their homes.
However, in 2004, southern rebels signed a peace agreement Sudan's government. The southern rebels agreed to stop fighting and the government agreed to give the south limited self-government and freedom from Islamic law.
However, by 2004, ethnic conflict had also spread to Sudan's western region of Darfur. This conflict raised fears of a new genocide. Arab militias, backed by the government, unleashed terror on the non-Arab Muslim people of Darfur. They burned villages and drove hundreds of thousands of farmers off the land that fed them and into refugee camps, where they faced the threat of starvation. The United Nations, the United States, and other nations organized a huge aid effort to help refugees.
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