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Archaeology

Intro to History
by

Andrew Flynn

on 11 September 2014

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Transcript of Archaeology

Digging up the past!
Archaeology
How we discover the past?
To understand the time before writing called Prehistory, Archaeologists study
artefacts
to build a picture of the time being studied.
Archaeologists have various methods of to pinpoint areas of interest..
Aerial Photographs: Photographs taken from the air can show ancient remains that are not visible on the ground.
Geographical Surveys:
This involves walking over a site and looking carefully for any objects using a metal detector.
Once a site has been identified the archaeologists seal off the area from the the public.
THE DIG!
Then the archaeologists begin to dig. This is
a slow and painstaking job. Extreme care must
be taken.
First the topsoil is removed using a digger. The site is
divided into squares and a site grid is drawn up. This
marks the exact location of each artefact.
What tools do you see?
The archaeologist uses a
trowel
for most of
the excavation. The soil is then placed in a
sieve
to separate the soil from the stones. All objects are then cleaned with
a small brush or toothbrush
. The objects are then
recorded, photographed and labeled.
All artefacts are then sent to be dated.
There are numerous ways to date artefacts...
Dating Artefacts
1.
Carbon dating
: Carbon dating
is used to tell the age of an object. All living things have carbon in them. When a person,
animal, tree or plant dies the amount of carbon decreases. The less carbon the older an object.
2.
Dendrochronology
can tell
archaeologists how old trees are.
Each ring can tell us how old a tree is and the space between the rings can tell us what the weather was like in certain years.
3.
Stratigraphy
is when archaeologists study layers of soil to finds artefacts. The further down an object is the older it is.
Both Historians and Archaeologists place the
letters
BC
and
AD
after the year an event took place or an artefacts was from.
Dating the Past
BC means before the birth of Christ.
AD means
'Anno Domini'
, the year of our lord in Latin.
Each one hundred years is called a
century
.
Put these dates in order:
66BC
40AD
7000BC
2012AD
1066AD
1472AD
5000BC
100BC
800AD
1987AD
365BC
You must be careful when using the word
century. If you were born in the year 1999,
you were born in the 2Oth century. What
century do you think 450 AD belongs to???
Keywords:
Carbon Dating
Dendrochronology
Stratigraphy
KEYWORDS:
ARTEFACT
TROWEL
SIEVE
FILE
Full transcript