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lauren briley

on 12 November 2013

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Transcript of 3.09 MARINE POLLUTION



Plastic pieces
Plastic food bags
Plastic caps and lids
Plastic straws
Plastic beverage bottles
Gas/Oil cans


In a more direct route, boaters may dump their trash right into the sea. In the past, this has been the main cause of plastics in the ocean. Fortunately, since the last day of 1988, it has been illegal for ships to dump plastics into the ocean. But that law is difficult to enforce, and cannot account for the thousands of miles of driftnets and other gear set by fishermen, which can ensnare and kill birds diving for the fish below, or come loose, only to be discovered later by an unfortunate humpback whale.
But when plastic reaches our waters, whether it be plastic bags or drifting fish nets, it poses a threat to the animals that depend on the oceans for food.
To a sea turtle, a floating plastic bag looks like a jellyfish. And plastic pellets-the small hard pieces of plastic from which plastic products are made-look like fish eggs to seabirds. Drifting nets entangle birds, fish and mammals, making it difficult, if not impossible to move or eat. As our consumption of plastic mounts, so too does the danger to marine life.
Glass pieces
Beer bottles
Glass beverage bottles
Disposable razors
Aluminum cans

Cigarette butts
Paper cups and lids
Styrofoam cups and lids
Styrofoam pieces
But how would a syringe that a diabetic uses make it into the ocean? If plastic objects make it into the main sewer system (say, by being flushed down the toilet, or carried by the rain into a street drain), and the water treatment plants are overwhelmed by excessive rain, then those floating objects can float right out to sea.
Plastic-whether it be for a container, a wrapper, or the product itself-has become an everyday part of our lives. This isn't necessarily a bad thing. Plastic is also the material diabetics use for their disposable syringes; arthritic patients have for their replaced hips; and construction workers wear to protect their heads.
Beach pollution is usually caused when people leave their litter and waste on beaches, and possibly washed ashore because of a natural phenomenon.
Non-gazetted beaches are usually more polluted because it is not monitored by the government-so it can pose a threat to marine creatures nearby when permanently polluted.
Research revealed that people who swim in areas of storm drains of polluted water were 50 percent more likely to fall ill and develop disease than those who avoided the polluted waters. Bathers who swam long enough in the polluted waters experience an increased risk for a wide range of adverse health affects.
Look for alternative materials or avoid excessive packaging when deciding on purchases. Use paper bags, milk and juice in cardboard, and cloth diapers. Insist on paper bags and glass bottles.
Recycle. Many communities currently offer pick-up recycling programs for #1 and #2 plastics. Other forms of plastic may be accepted by a local recycling business. If your community doesn't have a recycling program, contact your city or town hall to request one.
Educate others about the problem of marine debris, enhancing "voluntary compliance through awareness."
Start a local clean up group!
Combined sewer systems are designed to carry both raw sewage and storm water runoff to sewage treatment plants. During heavy rainstorms, these systems can become hydraulically overloaded and discharge a mixture of raw sewage and polluted runoff from streets into local waterways. The discharges pollute water around the outfalls and at downstream beaches.
Heavy rainfall can also hydraulically overload separate sanitary sewer systems which carry raw sewage to sewage treatment plants. This is especially a problem for systems with excess infiltration of rainfall through the ground into leaky sanitary sewers and with large inflows from sources such as roof drains connected directly to sewers. When flows exceed the capacity of the system, sewers can overflow and discharge untreated sewage from manholes and bypasses at pump stations and sewage treatment plants. The discharges flow into local waterways and pollute the water.
The majority of beach closings in the United States are due to indications of the presence of high levels of harmful microorganisms found in untreated or partially treated sewage. Most of this sewage enters the water from combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, and malfunctioning sewage treatment plants. Untreated storm water runoff from cities and rural areas can be another significant source of beach water pollution. In some areas, boating wastes and malfunctioning septic systems can also be important local sources of beach water pollution.
Petroleum products used for fuel are mined from the earth deep below the ocean surfaces. Occasionally, offshore drilling rigs experience accidental leaks. Ships carrying oil have also been known to cause devastating oil spills, but these are large-scale disasters. Oil seepage occurs on a smaller but continuous level, leaching from factories and other plants. In fact, one of the greatest sources of oil pollution is people who pour various cooking oils and grease down the sink drains in their homes.
A portion of the billions if not trillions of tons of trash produced each year finds its way into ocean waters. This comes as no surprise to anyone who has seen plastic bottles and other waste floating onto the beaches. Trash is often dumped from ships and offshore drilling rigs directly into the sea. Aside from trash, industrial waste is one of the major issues when it comes to ocean dumping. These toxic chemicals, including radioactive chemicals, are a death sentence for ocean life forms.
Agricultural Runoff:
Rainwater washes pesticides and fertilizers into smaller water sources such as streams and rivers, which ultimately carny those toxic chemicals into the ocean. Another source of agricultural runoff is animal waste, which is not treated like human sewage. For example, runoff from Midwestern farms into the Mississippi River is responsible for the "Dead Zone" in the Gulf of Mexico, which features very little marine life.
(Sunscreen, Air Pollution, Sewage... ect.)
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