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Revised Historical Foundations of Curriculum

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Julie Gray

on 14 September 2013

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Transcript of Revised Historical Foundations of Curriculum

History in Education
Adapted from Tracie Blair's Presentation
The Colonial Period
*A Public School for boys and girls of the community
Town Schools
*Children ranging from 5-6 years old to 13-14 years old.
* Weather and farming conditions decided attendance each day.
one room
*Elementary schools based on religion and ethnicity.


*Upper- class children attended these schools
Less fortunate children attend charity schools where they recited hymns and learned vocational skills
Charity schools
-Boys enter Grammar school at 8 or 9 and leave after 8 years.
Latin Grammar Schools
- Catered to boys who planned to enter professions like medicine, law, teaching and ministry.
America's closest link to European schools.
social institution
Supported religion
Studying was Exhausting and unexciting.
Latin was 3 quarters of the curriculum taught
The Second American Institution to Offer Education

*History was the chief curriculum
*Based on Benjamin Franklins ideas and offered practical studies
Common Studies
- English grammar
- Classics
- Compositions
- Public Speaking
Math was taught for its own professional use
Based on your career and profession you would choose your foreign language
Introduced common
Practical skills
-cabinet making
-book keeping
Harvard or Yale
Student would be admitted upon examination.
Showing competency in being able to:
parce tully
vergil and the greek testament
write latin
Rules of prosodia
and common arithmetic
College Curriculum:
natural sciences
Horn book Primer
Westminster catechism
Old testament and Bible
Text Books for the Colonial period
Children learned the alphabet the lord's prayer and some syllables, words and sentences by memorizing the horn book.
In the 1690's the New England Primer was published.
-Most used textbook for 100 years.
- 3 million copies were sold
-ABC's were learned through rote and drill.
in 1740 the new guide to English tongue was published followed by:
The School Masters Assistant (mathematics text)
Historical periods that define our educational system today
The National Period
Dr. Benjamin Rush
Outlined a plan of education for Pennsylvania
Free elementary schools for towns with 100 or more families.
a free academy at the county level
Free colleges and universities at the state level for societies future leaders.
Tax dollars paid for expenses
but ultimately reduced taxes because a productive well managed work force was a result of the plan.
Thomas Jefferson
Noah Webster
William Holmes Mcguffey
Freidrich Froebel
Johann Pestalozzi
Herbart Spencer
Johann Herbart
*created a bill for Virginia to allow taxes to finance schools.

* divided Virginia's counties into wards

*There was an Elementary school a secondary school and William and Mary school.

* The proposal was never enacted. But did provide good education for society.
"Unshackle your minds and act like independent beings."
*He created the US American Language
Known for Websters Dictionary
identified the US as a nation
The use of a US language would eliminate the European language, and make the US more uniform
Mcguffey paved the way for the grading system in the US. HE created the most popular text books of his era called the 5 readers. The Readers exemplified patriotism, Heroism, hard work, diligence, and virtuous living. Some of his books are still used today in rural, conservative schools.
Created the basic principals in education. The "General Teaching" method and the "Special Teaching" method.
General Teaching: educators provide emotional security and affection
Special teaching: considers children's auditory and visual senses.
McClure, Neef , Mann and Barnard introduced these ideas to US Schools.
The kindergarten Movement
*Focused on 3 and 4 year olds
*Surrounded their schooling with play and individual group interests and activities.
*Encouraged and child centered curriculum based on love trust and freedom.
The formal curriculum consisted of:
Colorful materials.
Stories and Games
"Contributed to Morals in Education"
Five ideas to found moral character:
1. Inner Freedom
2. Perfection
3. Benevolence
4. Justice
5. Retribution
Also Specified int 2 major bodies of interest:
Knowledge of interest (factual data and speculative ideas) and
ethical interest(sympathy and social relationships)
An English social scientist who based his ideas on Darwin's theory: "Survival of the fittest." He believed that if you were lazy or weak you would not survive. He wanted you to teach HOW to think not WHAT to think. His popular book was " What knowledge is of most worth"
The Rise of Universal Education
Monitorial schools were a european invention. It was a highly structured school with lots of rote learning and drilling the three R's of education. It focused on systematic instruction and good citizenship. Monitorial teaching kept all students busy while the teacher could focus on one student. It was a very mechanical way of teaching and the students were poorly informed by their educators.
Monitorial Schools
in 1826 Massachusetts established the "common school". Every town was able to choose a board of education to be responsible for the local schools. Common schools were devoted to elementary education with large emphasis on the Three R's of Education. Children from 6-14 went to Common schools and the school districts elected the school boards. It flourished on the frontier with all of the pioneers. It was a boring school Abe Lincoln said but it was where common kids could come learn the basics.
Common Schools
Through the 1800's people could not agree on the appropriate curriculum for a child. So it was ever changing. There was reading, spelling, grammar, and arithmetic. in 1825 Religion mandated that manners and morality should be taught as well. More and more subjects we added to the curriculum each year. Geography and history were added in 1850. Science nad visual art with physical education was added in 1875. Nature study and biology, music and homemaking was added by the 1900s.
Elementary Schools
Secondary school attendance was very rare in the 1900's. By 1930 the school enrollment figure exceed 50 %. In 1970 98% of elementary children would move on to secondary school. Secondary schools were a form of high school for students to graduate up to after elementary school.
Secondary Schools
During the 1800's the academy replaced the Latin grammar school. It offered a better range in curriculum for students. It taught useful things and subjects of modern nature. The academy taught Latin, Greek, English Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic, Algebra, Composition, natural philosophy, rhetoric, US history. Its traditional curriculum was to help focus on preparing students for college. The era of academies continued way through the 1870's.
High schools were not a major U.S. Institution until after 1874. The supreme court ruled that the kalamazoo case should be established with support from the tax funds. High schools were attended by only a small amount of the youth. Many families did not care about college preparatory. Curriculum continued to expand. Making it easier for students to determine their interest and capabilities throughout high school.
High Schools
Transitional Period
*Harvard University President Charles Eliot influenced the committee.

*The committee adopted Eliot's plan to move from 10 grades to 8 in Elementary school.

*Stress of the three R's, English Grammar, literature, geography, and history. Hygiene, culture, vocal music and drawing were all a part of the curriculum.
In the 7th and 8th grades sewing, manual training, cooking, algebra, and latin.
Committee of Fifteen
*Also Chaired by Charles Eliot
*It identified 9 subject matters
1. Latin
2. Greek
3. English
4. Other Modern Languages
5. Mathematics
6. Physical Sciences
7. Natural History
8. Social sciences
9. Geography
*The committee recommended four different tracks to take

1. Classical 2. Latin scientific 3. modern languages 4. English

* The Committee ignored physical education and the arts

*The committee also started college preparatory courses.
Committee of Ten
William Harris 1834-1926 & Charles Eliot 1835-1909
Committee on College Entrance Requirements
Met in 1985

*Affirmation of the college preparatory curriculum.

*Created college admission requirements

*Discussed credits required for different subjects during college.

*Discussed credits for admission imposed during high school.
Harris and Eliot
In 1917 the Smith- Hughes act provided federal aid for vocational education.

Working class students were placed in vocational programs due to biases of middle class educators.
Vocational Education
Abraham Flexner
Pragmatic and Scientific Principles of Education
Charles Judd
In 1918 the NEA's Commission published the "cardinal principles of secondary education"
Commission on Reorganization of Secondary Education
Franklin Bobbitt and W. W. Charters
The Project Method
Kilpatrick a Progressive influence
The committee that developed the yearbook:
Rugg, Bagley, Bobbitt, Charters, Counts, Judd, and Kilpatrick.
The 26th Yearbook
Harold Rugg and Hollis Caswell
The Progressive Education Association Launched the 8 year study
Eight year Study
Ralph Tyler
John Goodlad
Harris and Eliot dominated the reform movement during the transitional period.

Harris wrote that common schools should teach morality and citizenship. He wanted to instill social order. Harris saw the school as one of the many factors in educating and socializing children.

Eliot played a prominent role in shaping higher education. He allowed for different ways of learning called independent learning. He also advocated for vocational schools to be different from high school.
* An advocate for abolishing Latin in American schooling.
*He argued that tradition was inadequate criteria for students and educators should make changes to the curriculum.
* He decided that there were 4 basic areas in modern curriculum.
1. Science 2. Industry 3. Civics and 4. Aesthetics.

* The Lincoln school of teachers college, Columbia University adopted this curriculum in 1917.
*Dewey believed in democracy and education
and published a book about it.

*He thought that democracy was a social process that needed to be enhanced through schooling.

*He believed that study of any subject could enhance a child's development.

*Dewey formed the basis of the child development movement in the 1930's and 1940's
An Evolutionist
who believed in laws of nature
Believed in preparing students to deal with problems and not acquire endless knowledge.
Prepare to change
with the world
He Emphasized reading and writing and spelling based on words, science and mathematics.
The principles for a democratic society:
1. Education should promote seven aims
2. High school should be a comprehensive institution.
3. High school curricula should meet varied needs of students.
4. Current educational psychology should be applied to secondary education.
5. Us educational institutions should function with one another.
A major goal in the 1920's was to eliminate small classes and increase the student to teacher ratio.
To Bobbitt Curriculum should outline the knowledge important for each subject.
Bobbitts guidelines for objectives:
1. Eliminate objectives
2. Emphasize objectives
3. Avoid objectives opposed by community
4. Involve the community
Behviorist ideas invluded:
1. Objectives derive from student needs
2. learning experiences relate to objectives
3. Activities organized by teacher should be integrated into subject matter.
4. instructional outcomes should be evaluated.
He divided his methodolgy into four steps:
1. Purposing
2. Planning
3. Executing
4. Judging
organized experiences or activities that were related and developmental in nature: one activity should lead to another.
He argued for integrated subject matter and a general education emphasizing values and social issues.
Curriculum should derive from real life experiences not organized bodies of subject matter
in 1930
1. focus
on affairs of human life
2. Deal with local national and international issues.
3. Enable students to think critically about various forms of government.
4. Foster open
5. Consider students interests and needs.
6. Deal with the issues of modern life and society's cultural historical aspects.
7. consider problem solving activities.
8. organize problems and exercise in graded organization
9. Deal with humanitarian themes in purposeful ways.
Here is the books outlining of the ideal curriculum
Rugg insisted that teachers should pre-plan and implement the curriculum needed for the students.
Rugg Advocated for cooperation among educational professionals.
Caswell wanted to improve instruction and help teachers to coordinate their activities with students needs.
Caswell coordinated a step by step curriculum building procedures

Curriculum should address the students needs and provide proper scope and sequences of subject matter
A study designed to show that curriculum can meet the needs of students interests as well as a curriculum based on tests.
Members understood that evaluation must determine whether a curriculum objectives had been achieved.
The study showed that they needed data on
1. Student achievement
2. social factors
3.teaching and learning processes.
4. instructional methods.
*Created more than 700 articles and 16 books
* known for his book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction
Created 4 basic quesitions for any curriculum:
1. What educational goals should a school seek?
2. What educational experiences are likely to lead to these goals?
3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organizes?
4. How an we determine whether a school's goals are being accomplished?
Godland's view was that schools should help individuals fulfill their potential but should promote societal goals.
He launched a study of 260 kindergarten and first grade classrooms in 100 schools to discuss curriculums.
His conclusion to his study showed that
schools emphasis are on test scores and that they are the bottom line!
This Concludes my very first PREZI
on the history of education:
I hope you learned a lot about the education of our past
Last Two Thoerist
Full transcript