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Transcript of Vicksburg
--President Abraham Lincoln
Confederate General Pemberton surrendered on July 4, 1863 after his soldiers wrote a letter protesting--they would surrender or leave the army.
By this time, rations were down to 1 biscuit a day for soldiers
Civilians were left with only rats to eat, homes and property were destroyed after almost 2 months of constant cannon fire.
The Union now had COMPLETE control of the Mississippi River.
The city of Vicksburg did not celebrate Independence Day again until 1944.
“The caves were plainly becoming a necessity,
as some persons had been killed on the streets
by fragments of shells. The room that I had so lately slept in
had been struck by a fragment of a shell
during the first night, and a large hole made in the ceiling.”
--Mary Loughborough, Confederate officer’s wife published in My Cave Life in Vicksburg, 1864.
Other Union generals couldn't figure out how to invade Vicksburg. Grant decided to take the longer land route and come around behind, even though this would mean risking more soldiers' lives.
On April 16, 1863, he started marching his troops for 17 days to fight 5 separate battles surrounding Vicksburg.
Then the troops surrounded the town and started the siege on May 18, 1863 with constant cannon fire, or shelling, into the city.
Remember the Anaconda Plan...How does Vicksburg play a key role in this plan? Go back to the maps here if needed.
Why was Vicksburg the key?
The Civil War
Siege of Vicksburg
Simulation of Cave
Confederate River Batteries
The Bluffs of Vicksburg
The Confederate army had set up a line of artillery along the high bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River. They could spot Union ships from miles and shoot them on sight.
In the background you can see the Confederate soldiers' tents.
These cannons face out over the river.
Vicksburg citizens were forced to dig into the sides of hills to avoid the shelling and debris.
Wealthier women would force their enslaved servants to dig the caves, bring the furniture, and set it up as comfortably as possible.
This is a present-day reenactment.
Take notes in your notebook. The maps here will come in handy as you view the prezi.