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New SLA Theories
Transcript of New SLA Theories
Chun Jun Krashen's
Theory Learning Theories Later Theories of Second Language Acquisition "Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding."
- Stephen Krashen Acquisition- Learning Hypothesis Monitor Hypothesis (since it is the inhibitor of all second language utterances) Crucial element: Acquisition Two ways – Acquisition vs. Learning (conscious) (subconscious) Natural Order Hypothesis Learning is always effected through a monitor enough time
concern with correctness
knowledge of rules Input Hypothesis Comprehensible input and input +1 Affective filter: motivation, self-image, anxiety Affective Filter Hypothesis “According to Krashen, the acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the 'monitor' or the 'editor'. The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: that is, the second language learner has sufficient time at his/her disposal, he/she focuses on form or thinks about correctness, and he/she knows the rule." Schutz, R. (2, July 07). Stephen krashen's theory of second language acquisition . Retrieved from http://www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html Criticisms The 5 hypothesis couldn’t be tested or assessed by empirical research
The definitions were undefined and vague
They relied too much on intuition as apposed to obvious seen differences Praise It is learner focused and the teacher is considering the developmental sequences that the students are going through
The theory seemed to explain learners language and how it was acquired and learned LING 4030
October 9, 2012 Lev S. Vygotsky Lev S. Vygotsky was a psychologist in Russia who argued that an individual’s processes can be revealed by their interactions with others in the past.
Vygotsky was concerned with the unity and interdependence of learning and development. Theorist This theory relies heavily on teaching, schooling and education. Vygotsky’s theory is all about social interaction and the role the external world plays on your development. Sociocultural Theory draws from Vygotsky’s theory- Zone of proximal development (ZPD) Learning should be matched to the child’s level of development. Vygotsky said there was a relationship between development and learning in two levels. Application to SLA: This theory explains second language acquisition by saying all of the above is true. That interactions with others shape and mold the development of children’s learning. Research on sociocultural development focuses on the interactions of individuals.
http://www.education.com/reference/article/sociocultural-theory/ Noam Chomsky Origin After rejection of behaviorism and structuralism, the cognitive tradition is embraced by the SLA field.
The linguistically based trend of cognitivists was affected by Noam Chomsky’s theory of L1 acquisition but their approaches are direct contrasts to Chomsky’s argument. Unlike Chomsky, they don’t agree on the idea of human having an innate domain-specific language faculty.
Yes, UG, provides some useful explanation, but they believe something else is present. Basing on the area of research of cognitive science, Cognitivists’ research is concerned with the mental processes involved in language acquisition, and how can they explain the nature of learners' language knowledge.
Learning strategies are special ways of processing information that enhance comprehension, learning or retention of information.
In their view, L2 is a special case of more general learning mechanisms in the brain. Also, L2 is a conscious and reasoned thinking process, involving the deliberate use of learning strategies. Basic concepts Behaviorists vs Cognitivists (Language Learning)
Behaviorist - an unconscious, automatic process
Cognitivist - the building up of a knowledge
system that can eventually be called on automatically for speaking and understanding 3 Stages of Computational Model (dominant model) 1st stage: Intake
Learners retain certain features of the language input in short-term memory. 2nd stage:
Learners convert some of this intake into second-language knowledge, which is stored in long-term memory. 3rd stage:
Learners use this second-language knowledge to produce spoken output For proficient speakers, choosing words, pronouncing them, and string them together in a grammatically correct way is automatic. Thus, they can give full attention to the overall meaning of a conversation.
For learners, they have to process the meaning of individual words. They need much more time if they are to fully comprehend.
Conclusion: there’s a limit to the amount of focused mental activity we can engage in at one time. Information processing Model McLaughlin’s Attention-Processing Model
Processing mechanisms: controlled and automatic
Categories of attention: focal and peripheral to form 4 cells attention to formal
of language Focal
(intentional attention) Peripheral Controlled New skill, Capacity limited and temporary Well Trained, Relatively permanent and unlimted Automatic Information Processing Cell A
performance based on formal rule learning
ex) Grammatical explanation of a specific point Cell B
the student’s performance in a test situation
ex) “keeping an eye out” for something Cell C
the phenomenon of learning skills without any instruction
ex) simple greeting (brief) Cell D
a learner’s performance in
situations of communication.
ex) Open-end group work Well Trained, Relatively permanent and unlimited Implicit and Explicit Models Implicit Knowledge
Unanalyzed (automatic) Explicit Knowledge
Analyzed (non-automatic) Information that is automatically and spontaneously used in language tasks The facts that a person knows about language and the ability to articulate those facts in some way Enable a learner to perform language Able to cite rules governing the performance
There have been the new emerging theories that hypothesize that learner language is inherently variable. Criticisms The functionalist perspective sees acquisition of language as intimately tied to the function it provides. Some researchers make the distinction between language knowledge in which some language knowledge is stored as rules, and other language knowledge as items. There have been only a few empirical studies about this approach. It is still not clear what kinds of structures will be automatized through practice and what will be restructured. Cognitive Stephen Krashen and now.....