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Pivotal Response Training
Transcript of Pivotal Response Training
*PRT aims to increase a child’s motivation to learn, monitoring of his/her own behavior, and initiations of communication with others. These changes are described as pivotal because they are viewed as helping the child learn a wide range of other skills. Pivotal Response Training can be described as a hybrid of behavioral and developmental approaches. PRT is considered a naturalistic behavioral intervention. It utilizes the “principles of ABA (e.g., reinforcement), but also incorporates developmental principles, such as following the child’s lead in intervention” (UCSB Koegel Autism Center n.d.). * Strong empirical support for clinical or private setting
*Does not use specific scripts
* Training is done in the natural environment
*Families are a major component
* child driven Pros & Cons 1) First the teacher must establish the learner’s attention. The teacher can play with something that is interesting to the child for example playing with a truck.
2) Second the teacher must obtain shared control in the environment in order to provide natural reinforcers in a contingent manner. Using shared control and turn taking. The teacher and the child can take turns playing with the car and driving it up and down the floor.
3) Third the teacher must use the learner’s choice. The child might want to make the car go fast or slow or make noise with the car. The teacher will do the same thing.
4) Fourth the teacher should vary the tasks and responses.
5) Fifth the teacher should intersperse acquisition and maintenance tasks. The teacher should intersperse tasks that have already been mastered with tasks that are still being learned to enhance motivation.
6) The teach should reinforce response attempts
7) Use natural and direct reinforcers Philosophical Approach PRT is “flexible and can be used with children with varying developmental levels” (Stahmer, 1999). PRT has been used with “a range of individuals who interact with children with autism and other severe handicaps. Pivotal response training is an intervention that is designed to be used by anyone who works or lives with an individual with autism” Who? Pivotal Response Training (PRT) is a method of systematically applying the scientific principles of applied behavior analysis to each learner with autism spectrum disorder. PRT builds on learner initiative and interests, and it is particularly effective for developing communication, language, play and social behaviors (Vismara, L. A., 2009). What is it? Who does it work with, Goals... Goals *Teach learners to respond to the many learning opportunities and social interactions that occur in the natural environment*Promote family involvement and improve the quality of life for all family members*Decrease the number of services delivered in separate settings that remove learners from the natural environment*Improve learners' academic performance*Advance learners' communication and language skills*Foster learners' social interactions and friendships with typically developing peers*Reduce learners' interfering behaviors (e.g., disruptive, repetitive, stereotypical)
*Broaden learners' interests Pros Cons * Some students do better in a ABA structured setting
*Some skills are difficult to teach through a child centered approach
* Works better when the student shows signs of play skills
* Need for more empirical Support for the program in a school setting. Pivotal Response Training was “developed by Robert Koegel and Laura Schreibman, who arranged teaching settings in which children were allowed to choose materials and activities while adults interspersed teaching opportunities within learning and play activities” (Vismara, L. A. 2009). A pivotal response, “is a behavior that leads to generalized improvements in other behaviors and is maintained by naturally occurring consequences” (Heflin & Alaimo, 2007). Opinion References Association for Science in Autism Treatment, (n.d.) Pivotal response training/ treatment/natural
language paradigm. Retrieved October 29, 2012 from,
Heflin, L. J., & Alaimo, D. F. (2007). Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effective instructional
practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Stahmer, A.C., (1999). Using pivotal response training to facilitate appropriate play in children with
autistic spectrum disorders. Child Language Teaching and Therapy.
UCSB Koegel Autism Center (n.d.). Pivotal response treatment® vs. pivotal response Training® vs.
pivotal response Teaching®, etc.what are the differences?. Retrieved October 29, 2012 from,
Vismara, L. A. (2009). Pivotal response training (PRT) for children and youth with autism spectrum
disorders: Online training module. (Sacramento, CA: University of California at Davis Medical School,
National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders). In Ohio Center for Autism
and Low Incidence (OCALI), Autism Internet Modules, www.autisminternetmodules.org. Columbus,
OH: OCALI. *Pros out weight the cons
* Strong empirical support
* Positive results and improvement s
* Within my classroom I could see this program
working well with my students. Where to go to learn more! http://www.asatonline.org/treatment/procedures_desc.htm http://education.ucsb.edu/autism/prt.html http://www.autisminternetmodules.org/