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Chapter 4 - Gender

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Yuliana Ortiz

on 1 October 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 4 - Gender

Chapter 4 - Gender
Gender Identity
The differences we observe are based primarily on gender or what culture has established as characterizing a male and female.
Male and Female Differences
Controversial Section in Title IX: Athletics
Percentage of female and male athletes proportional to female and male population in the institution
A history of expanding opportunities for females to participate in sports
School meets the interest and abilities of females even if it doesn’t meet the first requirement.

Single-Sex Education
The goals of single sex education are to develop the confidence, academic achievement, and leadership skills of young women or men using their unique differences to provide a more fitting form of teaching.

Transgender Identity
Gender identity in some cultures or societies is not limited to male and female
Differences Based on Nature
Influence of Ethnicity and Religion
Women and men that have been vicims of some form of discrimination are less likely to impose strict traditions on their children
Most of us take our gender identity for granted because it corresponds to our sex
We develop our gender identity at an early age unconsciously
Sex: identifies an individual as a male or female based on biological differences
Some individuals are born with biological "trappings" which simply means they were born with the anatomy of the sex they do NOT want to identify with
"Two-souled" people or "berdache" people are recognized in the literature of indigenous cultures. These people are homosexuals and transgenders.
Sports should be coeducational except when
The Courts look for the following to ensure equality:
The sport is a contact sport
Selection for teams is based on skill
Early in US history education was segregated by sex.
Today there are laws that force institutions to include both sexes in some way.
Research shows that students in segregated classrooms show a higher level of self-esteem and learning. However, the teaching method was not necessarily held constant.
Prevents discrimination in…
Admission of students into post secondary and vocational institutions.
The treatment of students
The employment of all personnel

Title IX of the 1972 Educational Amendments addresses the discriminatory treatment of students on the basis of their gender.
Title IX
Basic Background:

Struggles for Gender Equity
Throughout most of history (and still in many parts of the world today) women were not considered equal to men
Women were dependent on men for financial well being as either daughters or wives
For women who were on their own, jobs were neither plentiful nor well-paying
During the mid 19th century, women activists were part of the antislavery movement

Seneca Falls Convention in 1848
Women organized to fight against their oppression
There were some male supporters (Frederick Douglass) and white abolitionists who were fighting against slavery and for human and civil rights of all people
Many women at the time, however, did not support this movement
They saw nothing wrong with their roles as wives and mothers and thought it was natural

The Early Struggles
However, this legislation did little to extend equal rights to women

The Early Struggles
The legislation also limited the number of hours women could work and the times that they could work (similar to today’s child labor laws)
Later in the century, protective legislation for women and children was enacted to make some manual jobs inaccessible to women because of the danger involved.
50 years after the passage of the 15th amendment (which granted African American men the right to vote) women were allowed to vote
Feminists were able to gain the support of more women and men in the 1960s than at any other time in history

The Second Wave
Middle-class white women have traditionally dominated women’s movements.

Today's Challenges
Feminists fight for equality in jobs, pay, schooling, responsibilities in the home, and the nation’s law.
Today's Challenges
Much has been accomplished over the past four decades, but inequality continues to be a problem.
The current movement is more inclusive, addressing the civil rights of women of color, women in poverty, and elderly women.

The Second Wave
Differences Based on Nature
Research History
Prior to the twentieth century, intelligence was equated with the size of the brain.
When Alfred Binet developed the first intelligence test at the beginning of the twentieth century, no differences were found in the general intelligence level between females and males.
Today we know that brain size is related to body size, not intelligence..
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
Females perform at higher levels in reading
males perform at higher levels in mathematics
Biological Differences
The X and Y chromosomes that determine our sex represent a very small proportion of our total gene pool; males and females share roughly 99.*% of their genes.
The differences in psychological traits and academic abilities between the average female and male are quite small.
Improving Academic Achievement
Girls are currently participating in mathematics and science courses at about the same level as boys; however, they are less likely to select science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas as college majors

What can teachers do to increase the interest of girls in the STEM fields?

As an educator, it is important to use technology as a tool effectively in the classroom in order to keep up with the students knowledge of technology

Improving Academic Achievement
Examine the culture, status, development, and achievement of women as a group
Provides a perspective that most students have never been exposed to
Historical, economic, and sociological events are viewed from the perspective of a group that has been subordinate to men throughout history
All students should learn about a world in which the contributions of both male and females are valued
Women's Studies
Multiple Choice Question #3
During the second wave of equality struggles, what group of people traditionally dominated women’s movements?

Differences Based on Nature
Legislation passed in 1964 to add the words “or sex” to Title VII, declaring that discrimination based on “race, color, national origin, or sex” was prohibited.
However, this did not stop discrimination in hiring
The 1963 Equal Pay Act required men and women to receive equal pay for the same job
The nation’s largest feminist organization, the National Organization for Women (NOW), today includes in its agenda fighting racism and supporting welfare reform, immigrant rights, and affirmative action
Lesbians and bisexuals did not feel that the women’s movements addressed or highlighted their issues, leading to the establishment of separate groups to meet their needs
Fight to eliminate the physical and mental violence by providing support groups and shelters for abused women and children
They believe that women should not have to be subordinate to men at home, in the workplace, or in society.
Feminists continue to lobby for universal child care, safety nets for the nation’s children, better health care for women and children, etc.
Feminists also continue to fight to maintain their already won rights
Starting at a young age, teachers should encourage girls to build things, thus helping develop the right hemisphere of their brain.
Girls at all ages should be encouraged to be more physically active.
The more hands-on math and science can be, the more interested boys and girls will be in the subjects
Boys need a greater focus on phonics than girls
Selecting books that will hold the interest of boys is important as well
Art and music projects that engage girls and boys can be used to help develop literacy skills
Boys trail girls in reading and language arts tests
They are more interested in programming and designing, which can translate into a job in one of the fastest-growing occupations with some of the highest salaries.
Educators are challenged with increasing the interest of girls in computers
Boys also play more computer games and begin playing them at an earlier age as compared to girls.
Females and males use technology in different ways
Women’s studies programs: similar to ethnic studies programs in their attempt to record and analyze the historical and contemporary experiences of a group that has traditionally been ignored in the curriculum.
a) lesbians and bisexuals
b) middle-class white women
d) middle-class white men
c) lower-class African American women
Liberal (usually newly established) religions support the different gender groups.
Conservative (usually anciently established) religions enforce a strict adherence to gender roles.
Women and men who have NOT been victims of discrimination are more likely to impose traditional views on their children
Boy Code/Guy Code
Females have more flexibility in their gender identification than males
Few people fall on one end of the masculinity-femininity scale
Masculinity: stereotypically measured by a man's independence, assertiveness, leadership, self-reliance, and emotional stability
Femininity: stereotypically characterized as emotional, dependent, compliant, empathetic, and nurturing
Masculinity and Femininity
We can fairly easily distinguish males and females by their physical appearance alone.
However, the extent of these physical differences can also be influenced by environment and culture.
They can be altered with nutrition, physical activity, practice, and behavioral expectations.
Most researchers have found little evidence that our brains are hardwired to make us behave differently.
Brain Anatomy
Cerebral Cortex
Left hemisphere
Speaking, reading, writing
Favored by females
Right Hemisphere
Spatial visualization, mathematics, and science
Favored by males
Girls and boys can learn to use both hemispheres of the brains so that they can effectively develop the full range of skills
Differences Based on Nature
• Resolutions
o Different types of classroom activities are needed to engage boys and girls in the academic areas in which they are not performing proficiently.
o Expectations for both girls and boys need to be high, no matter the subject area.

Socially Constructed Differences
• Recreational and Interpersonal Differences
• Lack of Emotional Teaching
• Significant Adults, Siblings, and Peers
• Socialization Process
• Behavior Reinforcement

Socially Constructed Differences
• The Influence of Media on Perceptions of Gender Roles
o Television
o Magazines
o Marketing

Multiple Choice Question #1
Males and females share roughly ___% of their genes.

a) 89.9
b) 32.4
c) 56.5
d) 99.8
Socially Constructed Differences
• Socialization Patterns in School
o Different Feedback
 Boys
• More likely to be praised for their intellectual responses
• More likely to be publicly criticized
 Girls
• More likely to be praised for their behavior
• Less likely to be publicly criticized
o Play Groups
 Boys
• More aggressive activities
• More room to play
• Less acceptable to join the girls
 Girls
• More friendly and playful activities
• More acceptable to join the boys

Socially Constructed Differences
• Combating Gender Stereotypes in the Classroom
o Instructional Classroom Design
o Positive Ways to Bridge the Gap
 Participation in the preferred activities of the other gender
 Cooperative projects
 Encourage leadership roles
o Textbooks
 Not as racist and sexist as in the past
 Remain conscious to selected authors
 Identify additional resources

The Boy Crisis
• Issues
o Since the 1970s, boys have been shortchanged
o Boy’s loud, disorderly behavior

• Solutions
o Establishing a developmentally appropriate classroom
o Increase of male teachers
o Develop a curriculum that:
 Does not give preferential treatment to boys over girls or girls over boys
 Shows both genders in aggressive, nurturing, independent, exciting, and emotional roles
 Encourages all students to explore traditional and nontraditional roles
 Assists them in developing positive self-images about their sexuality

Bringing Gender Equality to the Classroom and Beyond
• Education is a key to upward mobility and financial security in adulthood.
• Girls take better advantage of educational opportunities
• Although males generally end up with better jobs and higher salaries, not all males are served well by schools.
• High-stakes testing and other forms of assessment will allow teachers to identify gaps in student learning, allowing them to develop strategies that build on the prior experiences of students.
• Differences between the test scores of females and males have narrowed over the past few decades, but girls remain slightly ahead in reading and writing and boys in mathematics.
• Males tend to do better than females on college admission examinations, in part because multiple-choice tests favor boys, who take less time to guess when they do not know the answer.
• If the tests included more essay questions, the gap between the sexes would be reduced even further.
• Some differences in academic achievement of females and males may be eliminated if educators improved male performance in literacy and female performance in mathematics and science.
• Teachers, counselors, teacher aides, coaches, and principles all have roles in eradicating the inequities that result from sexism.

Bringing Gender Equality to the Classroom and Beyond
Most people...

a) are entirely masculine or entirely feminine.
b) develop their gender identity in adulthood
c) have both feminine and masculine characteristics
d) develop their gender identity without influence from their culture, peers, or parents
Multiple Choice Question #2
The Cost of Sexism and Gender Discrimination
Sexism is the belief that males are superior to females
It often happens around us and we are unable to recognize it.
We were raised in a sexist society, and that made us accept gender discrimination.
when we are given roles by society we don't object.
"Make it Neutral"
cleaning lady
The woman is to focus on their marriage. If it were to fail, its their fault that it didn't workout.
Men were to concentrate on their work to provide income for the family.
Society's gender roles
Neither one of them could choose a different role, for the fear of being shunned by society.
Gender laws
About a century ago, there were several laws that prohibited women from, what we consider now as, basic human rights.
women couldn't attend college
no legal right to property or their children
initiate a divorce
couldn't smoke or drink
Now that these laws no longer exist, people believe that both women and men are now equal. That’s a fairytale a whole lot of woman and men wish exist.
As boys and young men, they were forced into a strict code of masculinity.
they couldn't express their feelings
were foreign to compassion or empathy
under any circumstance, they could not cry
Men were treated unfairly too...
No matter your gender or where you were, you were not safe from the prison of gender discrimination
at home
in jobs
public places
No way out
Physical strength is what determined what kind of job was given to everyone.
Men were given labor market activities. Men were expected to work, no matter what.
construction laborers, electricians, carpenters, firefighters
Women were given non-labor activities. Women were given the option to work. Their jobs resembled to their daily home tasks, caring for children or the sick.
Jobs in the educational field or jobs in the medical field
No matter the education or work experience, men have alway gotten paid more.
Sexual harassment
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that tends to create a hostile or offensive work environment
This behavior is often seen in schools, which is sad but true.
both genders of all ages are victims of sexual harassment
in verbal (insults & sexual rumors), visual (naked pictures & obscene gestures), or physical ways (rape, fondling, or flashing)
Every year, many boys are hazed or initiated into an organization or sport.
This behavior is then adapted by the victims and they practice and inflict the hazing onto others
Multiple choice question #4
Which of these occupations have the highest women's participation?

a. surveying & mapping technicians
b. dental hygienist
c. mechanical engineers
d. firefighters
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