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The Holocaust

APUSH Project
by

Olivia VanBuskirk

on 6 June 2013

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Transcript of The Holocaust

The Holocaust Olivia VanBuskirk
4th hour Important People The Allies Rabbi Steven Wise - Spoke out against Nazism
- Met with Franklin Roosevelt (then the President) to discuss Hitler's plan
- One of the greatest fighters for democracy and human rights Franklin Roosevelt - President of the United States at the time of the Holocaust
- believed the best way to end the Holocaust was to defeat Germany as quickly as possible
- Often criticized for doing to little to help Breckingridge Long - US State Department official who dealt with European refugee matters
- designed a policy to prevent Nazi spies from entering America as immigrants The Nazis Adolf Hitler - dictator and later the sole leader of Nazi Germany
- Goals: 1. Destroy the Treaty of Versailles 2. Bring all of Germany into one Reich 3. Make Germany strong again 4. Create Arayan society because of his hate for Jews and people he believed were inferior to him Reinhard Heydrich - Main architect of the Holocaust
- Organized Kristallnacht
- Implemented the Warsaw Ghetto Joseph Mengeles - "The Angel of Death"
- selected who would go become laborers and who would get gassed at Auschwitz
- Performed numerous experiments on prisoners
- Fascinated by twins - in one instance he killed 14 sets of twins and then dissected their bodies to study them Claus Schilling
- Scientist at Dachau that ran studies on malaria
-injected patients with the virus, 300-400 people out of 1000 died Heinrich Himmler - one of the main architects of the Holocaust
- invented the gas chamber
- Posen speech
- Responsible for the "Germanization" of the east What Was the Holocaust? The German holocaust was one of the largest occurrences of mass genocide in world history. It was the systematic murder of Jews and other target groups.
- It was organized by the German Nazi Party, which was led by Adolf Hitler. The victims were targeted mainly because the Nazis and Germans believed they were racially superior to others.
- Along with the Jews, Catholics, the disabled, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Poles, Slavs, and people who did not fit the Aryan specifications were targeted by the Nazis. Where Did the Holocaust Happen? The Holocaust took place in Eastern Europe. People were arrested or taken from their homes and then transported to either concentration, work or death camps.
- Some of the major concentration camps were Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen-Belsen, Buchenwald, and Dachau. Why? One of the main reasons the Holocaust happened was because Germany was humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles.
- Germany was also greatly hurt when the United States suffered from the stock market crash and Great Depression. When Hitler came to power as leader of the Nazi party, he incited clashes with Communists and made vicious propaganda. The Nazis claimed that the Jews corrupted German culture with their foreign and mongrel influence - this is known as anti-semitism.
The Jews were also blamed for all the social and economic problems that Germany was having. 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Holocaust Timeline January 30th : Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. ( At this time, 566,000 Jews lived in the country) February 27th : Nazis burn the Reichstag Building to create an atmosphere of crisis. February 28th : Emergency powers are granted to Hitler as a result of the Reichstag fire; the German government takes away freedom of speech, assembly, press, and freedom from invasion of privacy and from house search without warrant. March 22nd : Heinrich Himmler opens the Nazis first concentration camp (Dachau) near Munich. This is the first thing prisoners saw when coming to Dachau. The sign means " Labor makes you free." The majority of people brought to Dachau never made it back out. The original Reichstag Building March 24th : German Parliament passes the Enabling Act, giving Hitler dictatorial powers. March 27th : Massive Anti - Nazi rally is held at Madison Square Gardens, New York. April 26th : The Gestapo (Secret Nazi police force) is created by Hermann Göring in Prussia. April 7th : The Nazis' first Anti - Semitic decree removes all Jews from all government service. July : Laws are passed in Germany that permit the forced sterilization of Jews, Gypsies, the mentally and physically disabled, African-Germans, and others considered "inferior" or "unfit." July 14th : The Nazi Party is declared the only legal party in Germany. Also, Jewish immigrants from Poland loose their German citizenship. September : Nazis establish Reich Chamber of Culture and exclude Jews from the arts. September 29th : Nazis exclude Jews from owning land. October 4th : Jews are prohibited from becoming newspaper editors. April 1st : A nationwide boycott of Jewish-owned businesses in Germany is carried out by the Nazis. April 25th : The law against "overcrowding in German schools and universities" is adopted, restricting the number of Jewish children allowed to attend. Children of war veterans and those with one non-Jewish parent are initially exempted. May 10th : Books by Jews and opponents of Nazism are burned publicly. October 19th : Germany withdraws from the League of Nations. Beginning in 1933 and going to 1935 : In all German schools it is officially taught that "non-Aryans" are racially inferior. Jewish children are prohibited from participating in "Aryan" sports clubs, school orchestras, and other extracurricular activities. Jewish children are banned from playgrounds, swimming pools, and parks in many German cities and towns. November 24th : Nazis pass a Law against Habitual and Dangerous Criminals, which allows beggars, the homeless, alcoholics and the unemployed to be sent to concentration camps. January 24th : Jews are banned from the German Labor Front. May 17th : The Jews are banned from having national healthcare. June 30th : The Night of Long Knives occur as Hitler, Göring and Himmler conduct a purge of the SA (German stormtroopers) leadership. July 20th : The SS (Bodyguards for the Führer) are separated from the SA. July 22nd : Jews are prevented from getting legal qualifications. August 3rd : President of Germany Paul von Hindenberg dies and Hitler declares himself Führer. October : First major wave of arrests of homosexuals begins in Germany and continues through November. January 13th : The Saar region is annexed by Germany. Saar Region March 16th : Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles by renewing the compulsory military draft. April : Jehovah's Witnesses are banned from government jobs and arrested throughout Germany. May 21st : Jews are prohibited from serving in the German armed forces. June 26th : Nazi law is passed forcing abortions on women to prevent them from passing on hereditary diseases. September 15th : Nuremberg Laws are passed, depriving German Jews of the right to vote and hold public office, and they outlaw marriages between Jews and non-Jews. German Jews also lost their citizenship. February 10th : The German Gestapo is placed above the law. March 3rd : Jewish doctors are no longer allowed to practice in government institutions in Germany. March 7th : Hitler's army invades the Rhineland. Rhineland June 17th : Heinrich Himmler is appointed chief of the German Police. July 12th : The first German Gypsies are arrested and deported to Dachau. August 1st : Olympic games begin in Berlin. Hitler and top Nazis seek to gain legitimacy through favorable public opinion from foreign visitors and temporarily refrain from actions against Jews. October 25th : Hitler and Mussolini form the Rome-Berlin Axis (a military alliance between Italy and Germany). January : Jews are banned from many professional occupations including teaching Germans, and from being accountants or dentists. They are also denied tax reductions and child allowances. July 2nd : Further restrictions are imposed on the number of Jewish students attending German schools. July 16th : Buchenwald concentration camp opens. Entrance to Buchenwald October 15th : The Ministry of Science and Education prohibits teaching by "non-Aryans" in public schools and bans private instruction by Jewish teachers. November 8th : The Eternal Jew exhibit opens in Munich. This exhibit promoted stereotypes of Jews and Nazi perceptions of their danger to the world. Nazi officials at the opening of The Eternal Jew. November 16th : Jews can obtain passports for travel outside Germany only in special cases. March 13th : Anschluss - Germany annexes Austria. Nazi troops enter Austria which has a Jewish population of 200,000. March : After the Anschluss, the SS is placed in charge of Jewish affairs in Austria with Adolf Eichmann establishing an Office for Jewish Emigration in Vienna. Himmler then establishes Mauthausen concentration camp near Linz. Inmates doing forced labor at Mauthausen April 26th : Jews are ordered to register wealth and property. July 6-15th : 32 countries meet at the Evian Conference in France to discuss refugee problem. Little is accomplished; most Western countries unwilling to accept Jewish refugees. July 23rd : All Jews over the age of 15 are required to carry identification cards, to be shown on demand of any police officer. August 17th : Nazis require Jewish women to add Sarah and men to add Israel to their names on all legal documents including passports. October 5th : All Jewish passports are required by law to be stamped with a large red "J". October 15th : Nazi troops occupy Sudetenland - the northern, southwest and western areas of Czechoslovakia that were inhabited by mostly German speakers. October 28th : Nazis arrest 17,000 Jews of Polish nationality living in Germany, then expel them back to Poland which refuses them entry, leaving them in 'No-Man's Land' near the Polish border for several months. September 29th : Munich Agreement is signed. Britain and France accept Hitler's annexation of Sudetenland. November 7th : Ernst vom Rath, third secretary in the German Embassy in Paris, is shot and mortally wounded by Herschel Grynszpan, the 17-year-old son of one of the deported Polish Jews. Rath dies on November 9, one of the main causes of Kristallnacht. November 9th and 10th : "Kristallnacht," The Night of Broken Glass. Throughout Germany and Austria, Nazi organized nation-wide pogroms result in the burning of hundreds of synagogues; the looting and destruction of many Jewish homes, schools, and community offices; vandalism; and the looting of 7,500 Jewish stores. Many Jews are beaten, and more than 90 are killed. Thirty-thousand Jewish men are arrested and imprisoned in concentration camps. Several thousand Jewish women are arrested and sent to local jails. This is followed by a punitive fine to be paid by the Jewish community for the damages done to their businesses and the accelerated "Aryanization" of Jewish businesses. Inside the Berlin synagogue after Kristallnacht November 12th : German Jews are ordered to pay one billion Reichsmarks for Kristallnacht damages. November 15th : Jewish students are expelled from all German schools and can only attend all Jewish schools. December 2-3 : Jews are banned from the streets on certain days. They cannot have drivers licenses. December 3rd : Jews must sell their businesses and real estate and hand over their jewelry to the government at artificially low prices. December 14th : Hermann Göring takes charge of resolving the "Jewish Question", which was a wide - ranging debate about the status and treatment of Jews in society. January 30th : Hitler gives his infamous Reichstag speech, threatening the Jews. "Today I will once more be a prophet: if the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevizing of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!" ~ Adolph Hitler, Reichstag Speech February - June : Wagner-Rogers Bill proposes admitting 20,000 German refugee children to the U.S. The bill dies in committee. March 15th/ 16th : Nazis invade Czechoslovakia (Jewish population of 350,000). May - June : The S.S. St. Louis, carrying 930 Jewish refugees, is turned away by Cuba. The U.S. refuses to admit the refugees, who are forced to return to Europe. May 1st : British government issues a White Paper which restricts future Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75,000 over the next five years. September 1st : Nazis invade Poland (Jewish population of 3.35 million, the largest in all of Europe). September 3rd : Great Britain and France declare war on Germany. September 4th : Warsaw is cut off by the German Army. September 21st : Reinhard Heydrich issues instructions to SS Einsatzgruppen (special action squads) in Poland regarding treatment of Jews, stating they are to be gathered into ghettos near railroads for the future "final goal." He also orders a census and the establishment of Jewish administrative councils within the ghettos to implement Nazi policies and decrees. September 23rd : Jews are forced to turn in their radio sets. Jews receive more restrictive ration coupons than other Germans. They do not receive coupons for meat, milk, etc. Jews also receive fewer and more limited clothing ration cards than do Germans. October : Nazis begin euthanasia on sick and disabled in Germany. October 6th : Hitler issues the proclamation of the isolation of the Jews. 6 days later, Jews are evacuated from Vienna. November 23rd : Any Jew over the age of 10 is required to wear a yellow Star of David. Throughout November : Germans killed more than 16,000 Polish civilians in first six weeks of war. Five thousand of them are Jewish. February 12th : First deportation of German Jews into Poland. April 9th : Nazis invade Denkmark (8,000 Jews) and Norway (2,000 Jews). April 30th : The Lodz Ghetto in occupied Poland is sealed off from the outside world with 230,000 Jews locked inside. May 1st : Rudolf Höss is chosen to be kommandant of Auschwitz which opens May 20th. May 10th : Nazis invade France (350,000 Jews ), Belgium (65,000 Jews), Holland (140,000 Jews), and Luxembourg (3,500 Jews). June 14th : Paris is occupied by the Nazis. France later signs an armistice with Hitler. July : The Madagascar Plan is presented, proposing to deport all European Jews to the island of Madagascar, off the coast of east Africa. September 7th : Germany begins massive bombing campaign on London. September 27th : Tripartite Axis is signed, alliance between Germany, Italy and Japan is formed. October 7th : Nazis invade Romania (34,000 Jews). November 15th : The Warsaw Ghetto is closed off with close to 500,000 inhabitants. Inside the Warsaw Ghetto February 22nd : 430 Jewish hostages are deported from Amsterdam after a Dutch Nazi is killed by Jews. March 1st : Heinrich Himmler makes his first visit to Auschwitz, during which he orders Kommandant Höss to begin massive expansion, including a new compound to be built at nearby Birkenau that can hold 100,000 prisoners. March 24th : The German Army invades North Africa. April 6th : Nazis invade Yugoslavia and Greece. June 22nd : The German army invades the Soviet Union. The Einsatzgruppen, mobile killing squads, begin the mass murders of Jews, Gypsies, and Communist leaders. Summer : Himmler summons Auschwitz Kommandant Höss to Berlin and tells him, "The Führer has ordered the Final Solution of the Jewish question. We, the SS, have to carry out this order...I have therefore chosen Auschwitz for this purpose." July : Reich Marshal Hermann Göring instructs Reinhardt Heydrich to organize a "complete solution of the Jewish question." September 1st : German Jews above the age of 6 are now required to wear yellow Stars of David. September 3rd : The first test of Zyklon-B is done at Auschwitz. September 17th : Beginning of general deportation of German Jews. September 28th/ 29th : Nearly 34,000 Jews are murdered by mobile killing squads at Babi Yar, near Kiev in the Ukraine. October - November : The first group of German and Austrian Jews are deported to ghettos. November 24th : Theresienstadt Ghetto is established near Prague, Czechoslovakia. The Nazis will use it as a model ghetto for propaganda purposes. December 7th : The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor. The next day, the US and Great Britain declare war on them. December 8th : The Chelmno death camp opens near Lódz, Poland and the first gassing of victims in mobile gas vans occurs. December 11th : Hitler declares war on the United States. President Roosevelt then asks Congress for a declaration of war on Germany saying, "Never before has there been a greater challenge to life, liberty and civilization." The U.S.A. then enters the war in Europe and will concentrate nearly 90 percent of its military resources to defeat Hitler. December 12th : he ship "Struma" leaves Romania for Palestine carrying 769 Jews but is later denied permission by British authorities to allow the passengers to disembark. In February 1942, it sails back into the Black Sea where it is intercepted by a Russian submarine and sunk as an "enemy target." January : Killings begin at Auschwitz using Zyklon-B in Bunker 1. Inside Bunker 1 January 20th : Fifteen Nazi and government leaders meet at Wannsee, a section of Berlin, to discuss the "final solution to the Jewish question". The Final Solution was the Nazi idea to exterminate the entire Jewish population throughout Europe, which was an estimated 11 million people. March : Jewish aid organization reports that eyewitness accounts indicate the Nazis have already massacred 240,000 Jews in the Ukraine alone. March : In Poland, Belzec extermination camp becomes operational. The camp is fitted with permanent gas chambers using carbon monoxide piped in from engines placed outside the chamber, but will later substitute Zyklon-B. April 20th : German Jews are no longer allowed to use public transportation. May 4th : Gassing of more than one million Jews begins at Auschwitz. May 4th - 12th : Approximately ten thousand Jews, who had arrived in the Lódz ghetto some six months earlier from Germany, Luxembourg, Vienna, and Prague, are deported to Chelmno. Their baggage is confiscated before they board the train. June 1st : Treblinka death camp opens as a part of Operation Reinhard. This was a secret plan to murder Polish Jews. It signifies the deadliest part of the Holocaust with the introduction of extermination camps. In two years, between between 780,863 and 870,000 people were murdered at Treblinka. This is a memorial at Treblinka. Every stone signifies a town or city that had its entire population wiped out at Treblinka. June 10th : The Nazis liquidate Lidice for the death of Reinhard Heydrich. Heydrich was mortally wounded by Czech Underground agents. Some of the dead from Lidice June 29th - July 2nd : At a press conference in London, the World Jewish Congress estimates that the Nazis have already killed over a million Jews. This is later reported by the New York Times. July 7th : Himmler authorizes sterilization experiments at Auschwitz. July 16th/17th : 12,887 Jews of Paris are rounded up and sent to Drancy Internment Camp located outside the city. A total of approximately 74,000 Jews, including 11,000 children, will eventually be transported from Drancy to Auschwitz, Majdanek and Sobibor. July 17th/ 18th : Himmler visits Auschwitz-Birkenau for two days, inspecting all ongoing construction and expansion, then observes the extermination process from start to finish as two trainloads of Jews arrive from Holland. Construction includes four large gas chamber/crematories. July 22nd : Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto are deported and sent to concentration camps. August : News of Nazi plan to annihilate Jews of Europe reaches Gerhart Riegner, the World Jewish Congress representative in Switzerland. August 8th : Gerhart Riegner informs U.S. consulate in Geneva about a Nazi plan to murder the Jews of Europe. August 21st : President Roosevelt warns Axis powers that the perpetrators of war crimes would be tried after their defeat and face "fearful retribution." August 28th : After receiving details of Gerhart Reigner's report regarding the Nazi plan to annihilate European Jews, a British politician cables the information to American Rabbi Stephen Wise. September 2nd : Rabbi Stephen Wise contacts State Department about Nazi plan to kill all European Jews. Wise agrees to remain silent until the information is confirmed. October 5th : It is ordered that all German Jews are to be deported to Auschwitz. November 24th : For the first time, reports of Jews being methodically murdered at Auschwitz reach outside world. December : Exterminations at Belzec cease after an estimated 600,000 Jews have been murdered. The camp is then dismantled, plowed over and planted. December 8th : Jewish leaders meet with President Roosevelt and hand him a 20-page summary of the Holocaust. December 17th : British Foreign Secretary Eden tells the British House of Commons the Nazis are "now carrying into effect Hitler's oft repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people of Europe." The U.S. declares those crimes will be avenged. December 19th : The United Nations Information Office in New York releases a report that authenticates the accounts of the Holocaust. December 28th : Sterilization experiments on women at Birkenau begin. January : The State Department receives a report that 6,000 Jews are being killed daily at one location in Poland. January 29th : Nazis order that all Gypsies are arrested and sent to concentration camps. February : The Romanian government suggests to the Allies transfer 70,000 Jews to Palestine, but receives no response from the US or Great Britain. February : Greek Jews are ordered into ghettos. February 2nd : The Germans surrender to the Russians at Stalingrad, which is the first major defeat of Hitler's army. February 10th : State Department asks legation in Switzerland to discontinue sending reports about the mass murder of Jews to private persons in the U.S. March : The start of deportations of Jews from Greece to Auschwitz, lasting until August, totaling 49,900 persons. March 1st : In New York, American Jews hold a mass rally at Madison Square Garden to pressure the U.S. government into helping the Jews of Europe. March 14th : The Krakow Ghetto is liquidated. March 22nd - April 4th : Three new gas chambers and crematoriums open at Auschwitz. April 9th : Exterminations at Chelmno cease. The camp will be reactivated in the spring of 1944 to liquidate ghettos. In all, Chelmno will total 300,000 deaths. April 19th - 30th : British and U.S. officials open a 12-day conference in Bermuda to discuss the possibility of rescuing European Jewish refugees.
Little is actually accomplished to help the Jews. May : SS doctor Josef Mengele (The Angel of Death) arrives in Auschwitz. May 16th : Nazis liquidate Warsaw Ghetto. June 11th : Himmler orders the liquidation of all ghettos in Poland. July 16th : The Treasury Department is prepared to issue license allowing for the transfer of funds from Jewish organizations in the U.S. to Switzerland. The money would be used to help rescue Jews from Romania and France. July 20th - 25th : The Emergency Conference to Save the Jewish People of Europe takes place in New York City. July 24th : Mussolini looses power in Italy. August : Exterminations cease at Treblinka, after an estimated 870,000 deaths. August 2nd : Two hundred Jews escape from Treblinka extermination camp during a revolt. Nazis then hunt them down one by one. September : A bill is introduced into the House that would allow refugees who don't endanger public safety to come to the U.S. temporarily. The bill doesn't reach the floor of either House. September 3rd : Italy secretly signs an armistice with the Allies. October : The Danish Underground helps 7,000 Danish Jews escape to Sweden by sea. October 4th : Himmler talks openly about the Final Solution. October 14th : Massive escape from Sobibor as Jews and Soviet POWs break out, with 300 making it safely into nearby woods. Of those 300, fifty will survive. Exterminations then cease at Sobibor, after over 250,000 deaths. All traces of the death camp are then removed and trees are planted. November 3rd : Nazis carry out Operation Harvest Festival in occupied Poland, killing 42,000 Jews. November 9th : Identical resolutions are introduced into the House and Senate calling on the president to create a government rescue agency. November 10th : FDR suggests setting up refugee camps in North Africa and southern Europe. State Department demolishes plan. January 16th : Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr. proposes to FDR that a rescue commission be established. January 22nd : FDR establishes the War Refugees Board. February : Eichmann visits Auschwitz. March 24th : President Roosevelt issues a statement condemning German and Japanese ongoing "crimes against humanity." March : War Refugee Board helps organize the evacuation of 1200 Jewish refugees from Romania aboard three tiny Bulgarian vessels. March : War Refugee Board convinces Rumania to move 48,000 Jews from Transnistria, out of the path of retreating German troops. April 5th : A Jewish inmate, Siegfried Lederer, escapes from Auschwitz and makes it safely to Czechoslovakia. He then warns the Elders of the Council at Theresienstadt about Auschwitz. May : Himmler's agents secretly propose to the Western Allies to trade Jews for trucks, other commodities or money. May 8th : Rudolf Höss returns to Auschwitz, ordered by Himmler to oversee the extermination of Hungarian Jews. May : The War Refugee Board opens its first refugee camp at Fedala in North Africa. June 6th : D-Day
The Allies invade the beaches at Normandy. June 12th : Hay Action, the kidnapping of 40,000 Polish children aged ten to fourteen for slave labor in the Reich. Summer : Auschwitz records its highest-ever daily number of persons gassed and burned at just over 9,000. Six huge pits are used to burn bodies, as the number exceeds the capacity of the crematories. July : Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg arrives in Budapest, Hungary, and proceeds to save nearly 33,000 Jews by issuing diplomatic papers and establishing 'safe houses.' July 24th : Russian troops liberate the first concentration camp, at Majdanek where over 360,000 had been murdered. August : Nine hundred eighty-two refugees, most of them Jewish, arrive at Fort Ontario in upstate New York. August 6th : Lodz, the last Jewish ghetto in Poland, is liquidated with 60,000 Jews sent to Auschwitz. September 13th : U.S. heavy bombers rain destruction on factory areas of Auschwitz, but not on crematoria just a few miles away. October 7th : In a suicidal uprising, Jewish inmates in Auschwitz manage to destroy one and damage another of the crematorium buildings. October 15th : Nazis seize control of the Hungarian government, then resume deporting Jews, which had temporarily ceased due to international political pressure to stop Jewish persecutions. October 30th : Last use of gassing chambers at Auschwitz. November 8th : Nazis force 25,000 Jews to walk over 100 miles in rain and snow from Budapest to the Austrian border, followed by a second forced march of 50,000 persons, ending at Mauthausen. December 16th : The Germans begin the Battle of the Bulge as a way of striking back at U.S. troops. Late in 1944 : Oskar Schindler saves 1200 Jews by moving them from Plaszow labor camp to his hometown of Brunnlitz. January : As the Allies advance into Europe, Nazis begin death marches into the interior of Germany, taking 250,000 Jewish lives. January 6th : Russians liberate Budapest, freeing over 80,000 Jews. January 17th : Nazis empty Auschwitz and start prisoners on "death marches" to Germany. January 27th : Russian troops liberate Auschwitz. By this time, an estimated 2,000,000 persons, including 1,500,000 Jews, have been murdered there. Prisoners at Auschwitz before they were liberated. February 1st : State Department announces that perpetrators of all crimes against Jews and other minorities will be published. February 13th : Soviet forces capture Budapest saving the lives of 120,000 Jews. April 10th : Allies liberate Buchenwald. April 10th : Approximately 40,000 prisoners freed at Bergen-Belsen by the British, who report "both inside and outside the huts was a carpet of dead bodies, human excreta, rags and filth." One mass grave at Bergen - Belsen. April 29th : Dachau is liberated by the Allies. April 30th : Hitler commits suicide in his bunker in Berlin. Also, Americans free 33,000 inmates from concentration camps. May 5th : Troops from the United States liberate Mauthausen concentration camp. May 7th : Germany surrenders unconditionally to the Allies. Survivors from Mauthausen opening the crematoria. May 9th : Hermann Göring captured by members of U.S. 7th Army. May 23rd : SS-Reichsführer Himmler commits suicide while in British custody. November 20th : Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal commences. Nuremberg Trials March 11th, 1946 : Former Auschwitz Kommandant Höss, is arrested by the British. He testifies at Nuremberg, then is later tried in Warsaw, found guilty and hanged at Auschwitz, April 16, 1947, near Crematory I. "History will mark me as the greatest mass murderer of all time," Höss writes while in prison, along with his memoirs about Auschwitz. October 16th, 1946 : Göring commits suicide two hours before the scheduled execution of the first group of major Nazi war criminals at Nuremberg. During his imprisonment, Hans Frank states, "A thousand years will pass and the guilt of Germany will not be erased." Frank and the others are hanged and the bodies are brought to Dachau and burned (the final use of the crematories there) with the ashes then scattered into a river. December 9th, 1946 : 23 former SS doctors and scientists go on trial before a U.S. Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Sixteen are found guilty, with 7 hanged. September 15th, 1947 : Twenty one former SS-Einsatz leaders go on trial before a U.S. Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. Fourteen are sentenced to death, with only 4 (the group commanders) actually being executed - the other death sentences having been commuted. August 11th - 14th, 1961 : Adolf Eichmann on trial in Jerusalem for crimes against humanity and war crimes. Found guilty and hanged at Ramleh on May 31, 1962. A fellow Nazi reported Eichmann once said "he would leap laughing into the grave because the feeling that he had five million people on his conscience would be for him a source of extraordinary satisfaction." In all, an estimated 63% of the world's Jewish population was killed in the Holocaust. That's roughly 6 million people. It is estimated that the total number of people killed is around 11 million.
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