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Transcript of Decades Project
Genetic engineering is the use of biotechnology used to manipulate DNA and genetic material from one species of an organism and introduce it to another in order to specifically change one or more of its characteristics.
It was discovered while investigating how viruses and rings of DNA called plasmids infect bacterial cells, recombine, and reproduce. Scientists discovered that bacteria makes restrictive enzymes that cut DNA chains at specific places.
Restrictive enzymes make it possible to remove parts of DNA from one organism's chromosomes and insert it into anothers
Genetic engineering allows addition of only a few new characteristics to an organism that essentially stays the same.
The first genetically engineered product to be approved for human use was human insulin by the FDA in 1982, being the first vaccine approved for hepatitis B in 1987.
Since the 1980's genetic engineering has been used to produce everything from a more environmentally friendly lithium battery to infection resistant crops (GMOS's) and food. June 18, 1981 when the CDC reported the cases of five previously healthy homosexual men in LA who developed Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP). On June 5, story was reported in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly report
AIDS was originally called GRID until it spread across racial, sexual, cultural, and national origin borders.
AIDS is caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) which produces many infections after the immune system collapses. Kills and damages cells that help immune system, such as CD4+.T cells.
Originated in Africa; HIV-1 and HIV-2 originated in African chimpanzee subspecies Effects of AIDS Epidemic Created profound social implications, creating discussions about sexuality, gay marriage, drug use, condoms, and STDS among the public.
The 1st Anti- HIV drug approved by the FDA was AZT.
The public confronted homosexual discrimination
By 1985, 9,027 deaths
AIDS activist groups formed around the country
AIDS continues to infect people throughout the entire world, devastating lives with more than 39 million adults and children infected worldwide
As a result, new methods and importance of safe sex emerged Genetic Engineering was first discovered by Hamilton O. Smith, Daniel Nathans, and Werner Arber in California at a gene company called Genentech. Computers in the 80s revolutionized into PC's and built upon 1970s success. Helped grow computer popularity for preceding decades.
A PC is a microcomputer made for individual use by a person at home, in an office, or at school for such applications as word processing, data management, financial analysis, or games.
Frontrunners in the PC market: Texas Instruments, Apple, IBM, Commodore, Timex, and Atari. 1984- Apple Macintosh Great advantage in the field of medicine
Useful educational tool
A 1982 Yankelovich poll showed Americans were generally sanguine about the approaching Computer Age Concerns Widen gap between "haves" and "have-nots"
Excessive reliance on computers
Create a more isolated population
Would cost people their jobs John Lennon was an english musician, singer, and songwriter. He rose to international fame as a member of The Beatles, a very succesful act in history of pop music. He also became a solo artist when the group disintegrated and is responsible for twenty five number one singles on the U.S Hot 100 chart.
He was assassinated on December 8th, 1980 at approximately 10:55pm by twenty five year old Mark David Chapman.
Lennon was shot four times in the back with a Charter Arms .38 caliber pistol at his apartment building complex known as the Dakota located in Manhattan, New York City.
He was entering the apartment building with his wife named Yoko Ono from the Record Plant Studio to say goodnight to his son Sean when the tragic incident occured.
His killer; Mark Chapman had previously planned to murder two months before but changed his mind and went home.
When he returned to New York again Chapman considered shooting Johnny Carson or Elizabeth Taylor instead but chose Lennon because his location was more accessible.
His main reasonings for shooting Lennon was out of his own personal anger. He was let down when Lennon, once his idol, made a series of controversial remarks. A few hours before Lennon was murdered Chapman greeted him and his son on his way to the recording studio, had his album "Double Fantasy" signed and took a picture with him.
Mark Chapman, a security guard from Honolulu Hawaii had no trouble acquiring the gun that killed Lennon.
By 11:15 pm John Lennon died of exsanguation at St. Luke's Hospital Center. Fans crowded outside.
John Lennon's death triggered outpouring of grief around the world. The loss of him was immeasurable. He was a gifted songwriter, innovator, and was an international symbol of peace.
The end of Lennon resulted in the end of "peace and love- sixties"
His wife, Ono requested ten minutes of silence in the remembrence of him that day. Millions participated. 225,000 people gathered in Cental Park and every radio station in New York participated by going off air.
There was no funeral for him and his remains were cremated at Ferncliff Cemetary in Westchester. In 1985, New York City dedicated an area of central park across from The Dakota (where Lennon used to live) named Strawberry Fields, where he frequently walked. This monument is located in Strawberry Fields depicting the name of one of his famous songs: "Imagine". Hole In 0-Zone Layer Crack Epidemic The spread of crack cocaine became an epidemic between 1984-1990 when the drug gained popularity throughout major U.S. cities.
Crack is a major drug involved in the war on drugs. Highly addictive and destructive throughout the world.
In 1981, the CIA helped ship crack cocaine from El Salvador to Texas, Arkansas, and later, to LA and Compton drug dealers. The idea was to sell the drug in U.S. ghettos and use the money to supply weapons to the Nicaraguans fighting a civil war against communist Sandanistas.
It spread throughout the U.S. and led to an addiction epidemic (disease infecting many people) which disproportionately hurt Black and Brown communities (because poor), leading to huge increases in crime. Effects of Crack Epidemic Led to strict laws against crack cocaine which were more strict than laws on powder cocaine
Became important drug in "War on Drugs" led by the U.S. government and police who especially targeted young Black and Brown males
Crime rates increased and a high amount a people were jailed as a direct result.
Destroyed communities which still suffer effects of crime, drug use, and incarceration Politics Presidents Ronald Reagan from 1981-1989
Republican Party Policies Supply-side Economics (Reaganomics)
Economic Tax Recovery Act
President's Comprehensive Crime Control Act
Reduction in government size Supply-side Economics (Reaganomics) Domestic Foreign Increased military defense spending
Improve relations with Soviet Union
Declared war on international terrorism Hoped to restore the American Dream after economy was suffering and inflation was high
To stimulate the economy, increase employment and curb inflation Purpose Execution Reduced taxes by 25%.
Over $30 billion was cut from a variety of social programs
Attempted to cut government spending
Federal Reserve Board raised interest rates to combat inflation Results Increased deficit
Number of Americans in poverty increased
Tax cuts, plus military spending increased dramatically. Not even cuts on domestic programs could counteract the budget deficit or national debt; government revenues doubled
Stock market tripled in value
Created millions of new jobs Foreign Policy Wanted to achieve "peace through strength."
Gave military necessary support and supplies it needed. Especially to protect against Soviet nuclear attack.
1983 Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars"). A space-based missile defense program intended to make Soviets make arms spending a "rising burden to Soviet economy."
June 1987, Reagan made a famous speech that challenged Secretary Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall to gain peace, prosperity, and liberty. Tore down in Nov. 1989. Led to the end of the Cold War and Soviet Union in 1991.
"Reagan Doctrine" supported anti-communist rebellions in Central America, Asia, and Africa. Anti- communist governments supported the Mujahideen in Afghanistan, the Contras in Nicaragua, and Soliditary Movement's Struggle for freedom in Poland. Iran Contra Scandal Came to light in November 1986. During Reagan administration, officials secretly sold arms to Iran during the Iran-Iraq war. U.S. hoped the sales would secure the release of hostages and allow U.S. intelligence agencies to fund the Contras. Significant Events of Presidency 1) Appointed three Supreme Court Justices
Set out to end spread of nuclear weapons, influenced destruction of the Berlin Wall, signed Intermediate- Range Nuclear Forces Treaty and engaged in Strategic Arms Reduction Talks.
3)War on Drugs
5) Reaganomics In 1985 scientists from British Antarctic Survey (Jonathon Shanklin, Brian Gardiner, and Joseph Farman) discovered that since the 1970's, ozone values above their research stations had been dropping.
Later on they realized it was an o-zone hole that actually covered the whole Antarctic continent.
The scientists discovery was first published in Nature , May 1985 stating that o-zone levels had dropped to 10% below normal January levels for Antarctica.
Demonstrates how sensitive planet is to human activities Society & Culture MUSIC MTV (Music Television) was most important cable tv source of 80's music. Launched on August 1, 1981.
Pop music artists: Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Duran Duran, Prince, Madonna and Queen were popular
Michael Jackson was an icon of 1980's with his memorable leather jacket, moonwalk dance, white glove etc.. In 1982 his album Thriller became and still remains the best selling album of all time.
Golden Age of Hip Hop 1989
Techno style evolved in Detroit, Michigan in mid to late 1980's.
Hard rock, heavy metal, and glam metal became most dominant genres of the decade with artists like: Guns n' Roses, Metallica, Iron Maiden, Bon Jovi, Def Leapard, Poison, Slayer...
The Grunge genre included artists like: Nirvana, Green River, Skinyard..
Bob Marley a reggae singer, died from skin melanoma on May 11, 1981
Marvin Gaye, prince of motown was shot dead by his father in L.A on April 1, 1984 Films Highest Grossing Films: E.T, Star Wars Episode VI, Star Wars Episode V, Indiana Jones & the Last Crusade, Batman, Rain Man, Raiders Of the Lost Ark, Back to the Future, Top Gun.
Teen Comedies: Class, The Breakfast Club, Fast Times ar Ridgemont High, Mannequin, Porky's, Pretty in Pink, Sixteen Candles, Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Weird Science, and Valley Girl. Sports Michael Jordan bursts into NBA scene during 1980's causing a huge surge of popularity and became one of most beloved sports icons in U.S.
San Francisco 49ers won four Super-Bowls: 1981, 1984, 1988,and 1989.
1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow disrupted by boycott led by U.S & 64 other countries in protest of 1979 Soviet Invasion of afghanistan
1984 Summer Olympics in L.A boycotted by Soviet Union & most communist countries in retaliation.
New York Islanders won Stanley Cup for 4 straight years in a row 1980-1983. Only team of 4 major North American sports leagues to win 4 consecutive championships. Popular Games & Toys Games: Pac-man, Super Mario Bro's, Donkey Kong, Frogger, Tetris,Digger, Turrican, Legend of Zelda, Metroid, Game-Boy
Toys: My little Pony, Cabbage Patch kids, Rubik's cube, Care Bears, Strawberry Shortcake, Transformers, Rainbow Brite, Micro machines Tubular Fashion Trends Shoulder pads, jean jackets, leather pants,skin tight pants, MC hammer pants, legwarmers, mini skirts, huge earrings, parachutte pants, members only jackets, neon, oversized tops, acid washed jeans/ jean jackets, leather pants, crussafix jewelry, jelly shoes, Ray Bans, scrunchies, jazzercise attire, leggings In the 1970s, doctors on the east and west coast noticed several unexplainable untreatable diseases of the immune system in men, women, and children. Health care professionals recognized these diseases frequently in 1981. Computer Models
Following the introduction of the first PC in 1975 the Apple II, IBM released their first PC on August 12, 1981.
1982- Commodore 64
1985- Commodore Amiga Assassination of John Lennon Literature Popular Books IT, Pet Sematary, and The Talisman- Steven King
Red Storm Rising- Tom Clancy
A Light in the Attic- Shel Silversteen
A Prayer for Owen Meany, The Cider House Rules- John Irving
The Clan of the Cave Bear, the Valley of Horses- Jean M. Auel
A Confederacy of Dunces- John Kennedy Toole
The Color Purple- Alice Walker
Beloved- Tony Morrison
The Bean Tres- Barbara Kingsolver A Light In the Attic Somebody has to go polish the stars,
They're looking a little bit dull.
Somebody has to go polish the stars,
For the eagles and starlings and gulls
Have all been complaining they're looking tarnished and worn,
They say the want new ones we can't afford.
So please get your rags
And polishing jars,
Somebody has to go polish the stars.
-Shel Silversteen Somebody Has To HAPPY BIRTHDAY Ms. Pomeroy!!!