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Timeline

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Thomas Sinclair

on 6 June 2012

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Transcript of Timeline

The Tuskegee Airmen is the popular name of a group of African American pilots who fought in World War II. Formally, they formed the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the U.S. Army Air Corps.
The group was officially made operational on May 30th, 1943. Although the 477th Bombardment Group "worked up" on North American B-25 Mitchell bombers, they never served in combat; the Tuskegee 332nd Fighter Group was the only operational unit, first sent overseas as part of Operation Torch, then seeing action in Sicily and Italy, before being deployed as bomber escorts in Europe, where they were very successful.The Tuskegee Airmen initially were equipped with Curtiss P-40 Warhawks fighter-bomber aircraft, briefly with Bell P-39 Airacobras (March 1944), later with Republic P-47 Thunderbolts (June–July 1944), and finally with the aircraft with which they became most commonly associated, the North American P-51 Mustang (July 1944). When the pilots of the 332nd Fighter Group painted the tails of their P-47s and later, P-51s, red, the nickname "Red Tails" was coined. Bomber crews applied a more effusive "Red-Tail Angels" sobriquet. this is important because it was the first all black combat unit in the history of the US air force. Important Battles Important People Important Moments World War 2 The Battle of the Bulge was a battle fought in the Ardennes forest in Luxembourg. It was meant as a counter offensive to the allied advance into the heart of the continent. In reality is was the last gasp of the dieing Reich, and the last attempt of a dieing man (Hitler) to gain glory and prestige. It was fought between 16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945, when German forces advanced far onto allied lines in an attempt to reach the coast, in the process trapping the screaming eagles in the key crossroads of Bastogne. The 101st managed to stand and keep up defensive perimeters until they were received and the siege was broken by Patton with support from the allied air forces in destroying the last reserves of the German armored forces. it was only possible to relieve the trapped 101st airborne at Bastogne because of the defeat of the other German offensive on January 1st, 1945 of Operation Bodenplatte. this allowed the Allied air forces to use their squadrons for P-47 fighter bombers to smash the German Armor. The siege of Leningrad was the result of the German army group north's failure to capture the key city of Leningrad. the Siege lasted from 8 September 1941 until 27 January 1944. 872 days after it began. it is important because of the failure to capture Leningrad and the diversion of troops to hold the siege greatly crippled Army Group north's goal of Moscow, which, coupled with the battle of Stalingrad, and the failure of Army Group South's failure of the advance into the Caucasus destroyed the Germans fighting strength. the siege of Leningrad coupled with the other defeats that the Germans suffered into the later stages of Barbarossa destroyed any chance the Germans had of winning the war. the second battle of El Alamaien was a battle that turned bake Rommel in the north African desert when he was nearly at Cairo. the engagement happened at prepared defenses that had been made at general Archibald Wavell's command in 1940. Montgomery had then reinforced them and prepared for the onslaught of the so far victorious German forces. the battle was fought 23 October – 4 November 1942. First Battle of El Alamein had stalled the Axis advance. Thereafter, Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery took command of the British Eighth Army from General Claude Auchinleck in August 1942. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign. It ended Axis hopes of occupying Egypt, taking control of the Suez Canal, and gaining access to the Middle Eastern oil fields. The Tehran Conference codenamed Eurekawas a strategy meeting held between Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943. It was held in the Soviet Embassy in Tehran, Iran and was the first of the World War II conferences held between all of the "Big Three" Allied leaders (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom). It closely followed the Cairo Conferenceand preceded both the Yaltaand PotsdamConferences. Although all three of the leaders present arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the Tehran conference was the commitment to the opening of a second front against Nazi Germany by the Western Allies. The conference also addressed relations between the Allies and Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan as well as the envisaged post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference pledged the Big Three's recognition of Iran's independence. The V-1 flying bomb (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1,
Fieseler Fi 103) — also known as the Buzz Bomb or Doodlebug — was an early pulse-jet-powered predecessor of the cruise missile.

The V-1 was developed at Peenemünde Airfield by the German Luftwaffe. During initial development it was known by the codename "Cherry Stone". The first of the so-called Vergeltungswaffen series designed for terror bombing of London, the V-1 was fired from "ski" launch sites along the French (Pas-de-Calais) and Dutch coasts. The first V-1 was launched at London on 13 June 1944, one week after (and prompted by) the successful Allied landing in Europe. At its peak, more than one hundred V-1s a day were fired at southeast England, 9,521 in total, decreasing in number as sites were overrun until October 1944, when the last V-1 site in range of Britain was overrun by Allied forces. This caused the remaining V-1s to be directed at the port of Antwerp and other targets in Belgium, with 2,448 V-1s being launched. The attacks stopped when the last site was overrun on 29 March 1945. In total, the V-1 attacks caused 22,892 casualties, almost entirely civilians. Omar Nelson Bradley was a senior U.S. Army field commander in North Africa and Europe during World War II, and a General of the Army in the United States Army. Bradley ultimately had command of all U.S. ground forces in the World War II, from the Normandy landings through the end of the war in Europe, by that time commanding forty-three divisions and 1.3 million men, the largest body of American soldiers ever to serve under a U.S. field commander.

He was the last five-star commissioned officer of the United States (a rank historically held by only five men) and was the first general to be selected Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travis Harris, 1st Baronet GCB OBE AFC (13 April 1892 – 5 April 1984), commonly known as "Bomber" Harris by the press, and often within the RAF as "Butcher" Harris, was Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C) of RAF Bomber Command (from early 1943 holding the rank of Air Chief Marshal) during the latter half of World War II. In 1942 the Cabinet agreed to the "area bombing" of German cities. Harris was tasked with implementing Churchill's policy and supported the development of tactics and technology to perform the task more effectively. Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German-born rocket scientist, aerospace engineer, space architect, and one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany during World War II and, subsequently, the United States.
In his 20s and early 30s, von Braun was the central figure in Germany's rocket development program, responsible for the design and realization of the V-2 combat rocket during World War II.
The Battle of Kursk took place in July 1943. This Battle caused severe damage to Nazi Germany's war machines in Russia. This battle also went down as the biggest tank battle of World War 2. This was an aspect of Operation Barbarossa with armored warfare. Hitler decided to unleash the Blitzkrieg on the Red Army. Operation Barbarossa was really just a name given to Nazi Germany for their invasion of Russia. June, 22, 1941 it was the largest military operation of World War 2. Russian citizens suffered greatly from it as they were terrorizing the place they lived. The operation was based on the Blitzkrieg. Hitler said about the attack "when the attack on Russia starts the world will hold its breath." D-Day
It was 5am on June 6th, 1944. That was the time for the planned attack. They the military planners had given Canada a big role in D-Day. The Canadians were given one of the designated beaches where the Allies would sent out naval ships and land. This would begin the liberation of Europe from Hitler and Nazi Germany. Canadians were given Juno Beach, the Americans had Utah and Omaha. Finally the British had Sword Beach on the east. And Gold Beach which was beside the Canadians on the left. Canada's objective was right in the middle of everything. For preparations the Allies had about hundred fifty thousand soldiers, five thousand ships and landing craft and eleven thousand planes. The plan for D-day went as follows. They were to have fourteen thousand soldiers to land on the beach and 450 to go behind the lines or parachute or glider. The Royal Canadian Navy supplied ships and around ten thousand sailors. Plus Lancaster bombers and Spitfire fighters from the Royal Canadian Air Force supported the Invasion as well. The Canadian soldiers who landed on Juno Beach were part of the British Second Army. They were under the command of British Lt General Miles Dempsey who had also served in North Africa and Italy with the British Commander Bernard Montgomery.

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2009/06/02/f-dday-history.html The Invasion of Poland began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, and ended on 6 October 1939 with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland.

The morning after the Gleiwitz incident, German forces invaded Poland from the north, south, and west. As the Germans advanced, Polish forces withdrew from their forward bases of operation close to the Polish-German border to more established lines of defence to the east. After the mid-September Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura, the Germans gained an undisputed advantage. Polish forces then withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited expected support and relief from France and the United Kingdom. The two countries had pacts with Poland and had declared war on Germany on 3 September, though in the end their aid to Poland in the September campaign was very limited.

The Soviet Red Army's invasion of Eastern Poland on 17 September, in accordance with a secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, rendered the Polish plan of defence obsolete. Facing a second front, the Polish government concluded the defence of the Romanian Bridgehead was no lo feasabile and June 6th, 1944, is the day on which the largest amphibious landings in all of history took place. the Amphibious part of the invasion was codenamed operation Neptune, and the overall operation was codenamed operation Overlord. the landings took place in a part of northern France, called Normandy. The first troops hit the beaches at 6:30 (GMT + 2) while the Preliminary bombardment and bomber strikes completely missed their targets the landing were still a success, even though not as much as had been hoped for. there were three other operations going before and just after the landings to hide the real invasion area. they were codenamed Glimmer, Taxable, and Fortitude. in all 160, 000 troops landed on D-Day alone. The Battle for Stalingrad was a long drawn out battle
that took place between August 23 1942 and the 2nd of February 1943. It was the largest battle on the Eastern Front and was marked by brutality and disregard for military and civilian casualties. It is among the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare, with the higher estimates of combined casualties amounting to nearly two million. The German offensive to capture Stalingrad commenced in late summer 1942, and was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing which reduced much of the city to rubble. The German offensive eventually became mired in building-to-building fighting; and despite controlling over 90% of the city at times, the Wehrmacht was unable to dislodge the last Soviet defenders clinging tenaciously to the west bank of the Volga River.

On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weak Romanian and Hungarian forces protecting the 6th Army's flanks.
After heavy fighting, the weakly held Axis flanks collapsed and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded inside Stalingrad. As the Russian winter set in, the 6th Army weakened rapidly from cold, starvation and ongoing Soviet attacks. Command ambiguity coupled with Adolf Hitler's resolute belief in the "power of the will" and the value of "standing fast" further exacerbated the German predicament. By the Beginning of February 1943 all Axis resistance in Stalingrad had ceased and the 6th Army was sent off to captivity, many not returning home until the 1960s and 1970s. The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major World War II campaign, in which the Allies took Sicily from the Axis. It was a large scale amphibious and airborne operation, followed by six weeks of land combat. It launched the Italian Campaign. Husky began on the night of 9–10 July 1943, and ended 17 August. strategically, it achieved the goals that had been set out by the allied planners. they drove all axis forces from the central Mediterranean, opened up the shipping lanes, and toppled the Italian dictator, Mussolini. The crux of the invasion was the capture of the city of Messina, witch Patton did, and doing so, the Allied forces opened up the chance to get a secure foothold on mainland Italy. Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 in a full free democratic election. he was there at the urging of the German Chancellor Von Hindenburg. at the time the Nazi party was failing and almost out of funds. when he came to power, it was through the policy of work and bread, which for a poverty stricken Germany seemed better then gold. at the death of Von Hindenburg Hitler quickly consolidated his power, combining his office with Hindenburg declaring himself Chancellor for life. it shows Hitler's thought process that he was all powerful in the fact that he ordered all schools in Germany to replace the Crucifix in their classroms with pictures of him. In the years between 1933 and the outbreak of war in 1939 Hitler was busy building up Germany's military which was forbidden by the treaty of Versailles. all the while he was starting such things as the night of the long knives, where he murdered all of his political rivals, and the night of the shattered glass, where he had Jewish shops smashed, burned and looted, and was the real beginning of the Holocaust. at the outbreak of war the brilliance of Hitler's generals was shown with this new tactic of blitzkrieg. Hitler put his policy of the final solution into work in all of the captured territories, even speeding it up when Germany's defeat was nigh. with soviet armies encircling Berlin, and the Wolf's lair about to be captured, Hitler and his Mistress, Eva Barun committed Suicide on the 30th of April, 1945 The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European Theatre of World War II. Starting on 16 April 1945, the Red Army breached the German front as a result of the Vistula–Oder Offensive and advanced westward as much as 40 kilometers a day through East Prussia, Lower Silesia, East Pomerania, and Upper Silesia, temporarily halting on a line 60 kilometres east of Berlin along the Oder River. When the offensive resumed, two Soviet fronts (army groups) attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. The Battle in Berlin lasted from 20 April 1945 until the morning of 2 May. despite fanatical defense on the part of the Germans, the Soviets eventually captured the city, but honored their promise and gave the western half to the western allies, starting the famous cold war. The capture of Cherbourg-June 18th-July 1st, 1944 The battle was fought immediately after the successful Allied landings on June 6, 1944. American troops isolated and captured the fortified port, which was considered vital to the campaign in Western Europe, in a hard-fought campaign of 2 months, but resulted in the necessity of a deep water port to supply the allied forces in Normandy. The Battle of Aachen went from October 2nd until the 21st of 1944. The Battle of Aachen was a major conflict of the Second World War, fought by American and German forces in and around Aachen, Germany, between 2–21 October 1944. The city had been incorporated into the Siegfried Line, the main defensive network on Germany's western border; the Allies had hoped to capture it quickly and advance into the industrialized Ruhr Basin. Although most of Aachen's civilian population was evacuated before the battle began, much of the city was destroyed and both sides suffered heavy losses. It was one of the largest urban battles fought by US forces in World War II, and the first city on German soil to be captured by the Allies. The battle ended with a German surrender, but their tenacious defense significantly disrupted Allied plans for the advance into Germany. Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an unsuccessful Allied military operation, fought in the Netherlands and Germany in the Second World War. It was the largest airborne operation up to that time.Field Marshal Montgomery's goal was to force an entry into Germany and over the Rhine. He wanted to circumvent the northern end of the Siegfried Line and this required the operation to seize the bridges across the Maas (Meuse River) and two arms of the Rhine (the Waal and the Lower Rhine) as well as several smaller canals and tributaries. Crossing the Lower Rhine would allow the Allies to encircle Germany's industrial heartland in the Ruhr from the north. It made large-scale use of airborne forces, whose tactical objectives were to secure the bridges and allow a rapid advance by armored units into Northern Germany. The advance captured a good number of the Bridges between Eindhoven and Nijmegen, but Horrock's XXX corps were held up by overstretched supply lines at Son, and failed to capture their last bridges until it was too late. the other reason that the operation failed is because the Garden, or ground component of the operation took too long to Relieve the little red devils,or the red Berets, holding one of the ends of the Bridge in Armhem, and so they were over run. the Rhine remained a significant barrier to the allies until the offensives of 1945. Franklin Delano Roosevelt also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States (1933–1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he facilitated a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades. With the bouncy popular song "Happy Days Are Here Again" as his campaign theme, FDR defeated incumbent Republican Herbert Hoover in November 1932As World War II loomed after 1938, with the Japanese invasion of China and the aggressions of Nazi Germany, FDR gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China and the United Kingdom, while remaining officially neutral. His goal was to make America the "Arsenal of Democracy" which would supply munitions to the Allies. In March 1941, Roosevelt, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to the countries fighting against Nazi Germany with Britain. With very strong national support he made war on Japan and Germany after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, calling it a "date which will live in infamy". He supervised the mobilization of the U.S. economy to support the Allied war effort. As an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented an overall war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and the development of the world's first atom bomb. Unemployment dropped to 2%, relief programs largely ended, and the industrial economy grew rapidly to new heights as millions of people moved to new jobs in war centers, and 16 million men and 300,000 women were drafted or volunteered for military service. May 7th 1945 Germany surrenders
April 30th 1945 Russian troops fought their way to the subterranean bunker. Adolf Hitler put a gun to his head and pulled the trigger. Before Hitler died he appointed Admiral Karl Donitz as his successor telling him to keep fighting. Soon after Hitler died on May 7th 1945 World War 2 was officially over. The Germans signed the surrender document on May 7th in the French city of Reims. The fighting was officially ceased at 11:01 PM on May 8th. The Russians demanded that  a separate signing took place in Berlin on May 9th. Then the War was over.
  Babi Yar September 29th-30th
 Babi Yar was a great big ravine. It was used to kill Jews people the Germans would shoot them on the edge of the ravine and watch them fall. On 29th - 30th of September a special team of German SS  took 37,771 Jews and killed them in the ravine. They were under the General command of Fredrick Jeckeln. The Massacre was supported by members of the Waffen-SS battalion.
  Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
The Germans ordered the Jewish police in the Warsaw Ghetto to gather the Jews for deportation. 300,000 men, women, and children were taken to Treblinka death camp. The Jewish population in the Ghetto now was around 55,000 to 60,000 people. In April 1943 the Jews learned that the Germans were planning to round up the rest of the Jew and take them to the death camps. So they started the Jewish Fighting Organization run by Mordecai Anielewicz. They fired at the Germans with little weapons they had and it was enough to make the Germans retreat. This victory was not huge but it boosted moral for the Jewish for the future resistence. George Smith Patton, Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was an officer in the United States Army best known for his leadership as a general during World War II. He also developed a reputation for eccentricity and for sometimes-controversial gruff outspokenness—such as during his profanity-laced speech to his expeditionary troops.He was on the U.S. 1912 Olympic pentathlon team and also designed the U.S. Cavalry's last combat saber: the "Patton Saber" (the M-1913). In 1916 he led the first-ever U.S. motorized-vehicle attack during the Mexican Border Campaign. In World War I, he was the first officer assigned to the new United States Tank Corps and saw action in France. In World War II, he commanded corps and armies in North Africa, Sicily, and the European Theater of Operations. In 1944, Patton assumed command of the U.S. Third Army, which under his leadership advanced farther, captured more enemy prisoners, and liberated more territory in less time than any other army in history. A German field marshal speaking to American reporters called Patton "your best" (general). Heinrich Luitpold Himmlerwas Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel , a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party . As Chief of the German Police and the Minister of the Interior from 1943, Himmler oversaw all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo . Serving as Reichsführer and later as Commander of the ReplacementArmy and General Plenipotentiary for the entire Reich's administration , Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and one of the persons most directly responsible for the Holocaust.As overseer of the concentration camps, extermination camps, and Einsatzgruppen , Himmler coordinated the killing of some six million Jews, between 200,000 and 500,000 Roma,many prisoners of war,and possibly another three to four million Poles, as well as other groups whom the Nazis deemed unworthy to live, including people with physical and mental disabilities, Jehovah's Witnesses, members of the Confessing Church, and homosexuals. Shortly before the end of the war, he offered to surrender both Germany and himself to the Western Allies if he were spared prosecution. After being arrested by British forces on 22 May 1945, he committed suicide the following day before he could be questioned. The Nazi Soviet non aggression pact had many terms, one of which was that Germany would not make war on the Soviet Union, or the other way around, but also many others such as regular shipments of supplies from the USSR to Germany, and the sharing of intelligence, but one of the most important, excluding that one about not going to war, was the splitting of Poland, because it enabled Germany to attack Poland without the fear of being attacked by the Soviets. The Casablanca conference was held in Anfa hotel in the North African country of Morroco. it went from the 14th to the 24th of January, 1943. it was held to plan the overall allied ground strategy. there was notable tension as both prospective leaders of the french state, after it was liberated, were in attendance and showed their contempt for each other that permeated almost every facet of the allied war effort with a handshake so short (Roosevelt forced them to do it in the first place) that the photographers and reporters had to ask them to repeat it. the Yalta conference was held in what is now Crimea in early February of 1945 to decide what would happen to a post war Europe, and the result was the cold war, with Germany being dived between the two Blocs, west and east, and the Iron curtain over half of Europe. Katyn Massacre Joseph Mengele Yalta Conference Tehran Conference Georgi Zhukov Battle of Berlin Map Joseph Mengele was one of the most infamous men associated with the concentration camps and the Holocaust. He got known for his experiments on twins while at Auschwitz- Birkenau camp. Then again he did work at other camps during the war. Mengele was associated with selecting those who got gassed and those who survived but would die form hard labor. He got the nickname "Angle of Death". He also had a say in where the people/ Jews would go once they got off the trains left of him were the gas chambers and the right of him were put to work. More over he mainly was known for his experiments on twins in Auschwitz. He was fascinated by the study of genes and he wanted to find out if he could change identical sets of twins by operating on them and performing experiments on them that had no scientific basis. Mengele experimented on three thousand sets of twins at the camp before they were experimented on, Mengele did everything he could to make sure they don’t freak out or make a fuss. The children were given clean clothes and sweets. They could call Mengele "Uncle". When they needed to get to the laboratory they driven there in his own staff car or in a truck with a red cross painted on the side. They then took part in horrifying experiments. Some were surgery without anesthetics, blood transfusions from one twin to the other, injecting lethal germs into the twins for no reason and lastly sex change operations. Battle of Stalingrad Map FDR D-Day Landings Market Garden U.S Soldiers dogde emeny fire on the streets on Cherbourg Battle of Aachen Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, was Joseph Stalin's Birth name. He changed his name to Joseph Stalin (Man of Steel) after he got banished to Siberia for robbing a Bank.
After Lenin's death in 1924, Stalin promoted himself as his political heir and gradually outmanoeuvred his rivals. By the late 1920s, Stalin was effectively the dictator of the Soviet Union. His forced collectivisation of agriculture cost millions of lives, while his programme of rapid industrialisation achieved huge increases in Soviet productivity and economic growth but at great cost. Moreover, the population suffered immensely during the Great Terror of the 1930s, during which Stalin purged the party of 'enemies of the people', resulting in the execution of thousands and the exile of millions to the gulag system of slave labour camps. He also set two five year plans to industrialize Russia.
In August 1939, after the failure to establish an Anglo-Franco-Soviet Alliance, Stalin's USSR entered into a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany that divided their spheres of influence in Eastern Europe. After Germany violated the pact by attacking the USSR in 1941 and opening an Eastern Front. Despite losing lots of men and land at the beginning of WWII, the USSR managed to stop the German advance in Moscow and Stalingrad. The Red Army went right through Eastern Europe in 1944–45. They would eventually Capture Berlin. All of this was done under Stalin and his leadership. Not to say that he is a victorious hero but he did revolutionize Russia and win a war.   Joseph Stalin Travis "Bomber" Harris General Patton Omer Nelson Bradley Bernard Montgomery was  the hero of El Alamein and North Africa. Montgomery was also the senior British military commander at D-Day.
Montgomery was part of the British Expeditionary Force. Montgomery was given command of the Eighth Army in North Africa. Unlike many senior officers , he went out of his way to meet the soldiers under his command. This would have gained there respect and truly given them a figure to fight for. There was no doubt that he was popular with the men under his command.
The victory at El Alamein turned the war. That was the first German defeat in Africa.  
On D-Day , Montgomery commanded the British and Canadian units that were assigned to take a large part of the beaches.  Montgomery wanted to launch a full-scale attack on Berlin. But Dwight Eisenhower  declined this idea. Montgomery and Eisenhower had a good working relationship but Montgomery did not always agree with Eisenhower's decisions, he often favored American decision making. On September 1st 1944, Montgomery was promoted to field marshal, the highest rank in the British Army.  Montgomery now commanded the 21st Army that succeeded in taking the vital port of Antwerp in Belgium.  Montgomery’s army crossed the River Rhine on March 24th 1945. He accepted the formal surrender of the German military at Luneburg Heath on May 4th 1945.
[ http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/field_marshal_bernard_montgomer.htm ]http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/field_marshal_bernard_montgomer.htm Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born on 30 November 1874 at Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire. Churchill attended the Royal Military College at Sandhurst. He saw his first action on the North West Frontier of India and in the Sudan. In 1900 Churchill became a member of the Conservative party in Parliament for Oldham. That would lead to be the begging of his political that was really important to everyone later. He would later join the Liberals in 1904. The liberals won the election in 1905. This was his begging of his success. In 1908 he entered the Cabinet as president of the Board of Trade. In 1909 he became first lord of the Admiralty. He held this post in the first months of WWI but resigned after the failure at the Dardanelles. In 1917, he was back in the government as minister of munitions. He submitted warnings about the rise of Nazi Germany but was ignored. Right before WWII Churchill became first lord of the Admiralty again. Churchill became Prime minister after Neville Chamberlain resigned in 1940. In just four years he made one of the biggest impacts of the 20th century, his mentality of never giving in and his will to win is still remembered today and will always be remembered. His speeches could be heard throughout all of Britain, urging her citizens not to surrender but to fight on, and keep battling through the tyranny that they were confronted with. His unwavering presence was always strong and inspiring hope to the citizens and soldiers alike. He would visit the RAF command bases across the country side even when Luftwaffe bombers were coming in.He showed people that if he could stand up and make a difference so could they. He stood up to tyranny, never surrendering; knowing the odds, accepted them and kept on fighting. Churchill knew for England to achieve victory the whole nation would have to make a difference. He never left his post, particularly during the Blitz, constantly giving speeches and encouraging England to fight on.


  Bernard Montgomery The Bismarck was the deadliest ship of all time.  It was considered to be unbeatable. The most famous moment was when it went head to head against the HMS HOOD. HMS HOOD was the pride and joy of the Royal Navy and the Bismacrk Sunk her in eight minutes. After that decisive battle the British had one message to there whole Navy "Sink the Bismarck."
But on May 27th 1941, the Beast was sunk, during her battle with the Prince of Whales she was hit by a shell that ripped throw her hull. The shell also made contact with the gas line. The Bismarck was running low on fuel so she had to make port. She started to head for German occupied France, the Royal Navy sent everything they had after her. The air craft carrier Arc Royal was the only ship that could stop her as she was inching closer to France. The Arc Royal sent of her Swordfish Torpedo planes, one torpedo hit the ruder, the only venerable spot on the ship. At this point Bismarck knows that she will never make port as she drifts helplessly. But the Bismarck's Captain Ernst Lindemann is quoted " We will fight till the last shell." Although the Bismarck did not survive her legacy lived on as the most deadly battle ship the world had ever scene. Battle of Atlantic September 3rd, 1939-May 8th, 1945
In Spring1941, Hitler’s U-boats were dominating the North Atlantic, sinking over 1000 Allied ships and threatening to destroy Britain’s supply line to North America and the rest of the world. The allies were unable to crack the German radio codes. This is clearly the battle of the Atlantic; The Germans were handily wining until the allies got a hold of the Enigma code machine. That changed the fate of the battle of the Atlantic.
The  e two ships who captured the first Enigma in May 1941, were HMS Bulldog and HMS Aubretia. While The Germans were in control till this point, from here on out the battle of the Atlantic would neck in neck with both the Allies and the Nazis winning battles. Battle of Britain: July 10-October 31st, 1940
The RAF only had 900 plans. In June 1940 the Luftwaffe was ordered to destroy the British convoy ships.The British developed Radar to help the RAF.
On June 18 Churchill announced to the House of Commons that the Battle of Britain was about to begin: “The whole fury and might of the enemy must be turned upon us. Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island, or lose the war." Churchill believed the RAF could turn the tide of the war. “Never in the field of human conflict, was so much, owed by so many, to so few.” The RAF were the reason that the British were able to hold of the Germans. 
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