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Psychology Revision, Social Influence, Stress, Abnormality.

Sam Munton

on 5 June 2013

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Transcript of Psychology

Psychology Revision Social Influence WHY? Normative (Liked). Informational (Right). Conformity =
A social influence where we choose to go along with the majority. WHAT? Internalisation (Right). Compliance (Liked). = Public Change
= Private Change = Public Change
= Private Doesn't Asch (1951) - Line Study P: 50 Male Participants, USA, Laboratory Experiment, 1 'test' line + 3 'comparison' lines, 1 of 7 were real participants, 6 were confederates. MAJORITY INFLUENCE F: 34% conformed to the unanimous view of the majority.
74% of the naive participants conformed at least once.
26% never conformed. Gained a greater understanding into conformity and the effect it has on individuals and what aids conformity levels and what hinders it. Lacks ecological validity - Lab Exp.
Real World Applications?
Ethics - Deception?
Cultural Bias - College Students - USA.
Individual Differences - Locus of Control. Variations of Aschs' Study Increase the number of confederates to 16 = Stayed the same.
Confederates contained one dissenter who agreed with participant = Lower to 5%
The task was made more difficult with closer lines = Higher
Participants give their answer privately. (Deutsch & Gerrard - 1955) = Lower
Participants were Maths & Science students apposed to Sociology. (Perrin & Spencer - 1981) = Lower to 1 in 396 participants
The participants are young offenders and confederates are probation officers. (Perrin & Spencer - 1981) = Stayed the same. Crutchfield (1955) - Switches P: Similar to Aschs' study, didn't involve face to face communication, took part in booths, press switches, 600 participants, business & military backgrounds. F: Findings were similar to Aschs'. Using Aschs' comparison lines, only 30% conformed.
When task was made more difficult, conformity increased.
Participants from business & military backgrounds with high IQ's, displayed lower conformity levels. Gained a greater understanding into conformity and the effect it has on individuals and what aids conformity levels and what hinders it.
Advanced from Aschs' study. Lacks ecological validity - Lab Exp.
Real World Applications?
Ethics - Deception?
Individual Differences - Locus of Control. OBEDIENCE Milgram (1963-74) - 'Electrocution'. Obedience = To follow a command. PROCEDURE: 40 Male Participants, aged between twenty & fifty. Deceptive newspaper advertising (Volunteer Sampling), paid $4.50 for volunteering. Laboratory experiment at Yale University, role of 'teacher' or 'learner', confederate was always 'learner' played by (a male 47 year old who mentioned he had a heart complaint).
Teacher's role was to administrate a shock when the learner got it wrong on a simple learning task. Learner was strapped to an electric chair. Task involved 'word pairs'.
Voltage increased by 15, starting from 15 to 450 volts ('Danger-severe shock XXX').
Initially, the confederate answers correctly, then make mistakes.
Protest at 180 volts.
At 300 volts he complained his heart was troubling him.
At 315 volts he refused to continue and remained silent for remainder of experiment.
If the participants requested to stop an experimenter gave standardised prods such as 'please continue' to 'you have no other choice, you must go on'.
Experiment continued until teacher refused to continue or they reached 450 volts. FINDINGS: All participants continued to give shocks up to 300 volts.
65% continued to highest level of 450 volts.
This contradicted predicted results of only 3% or less would reach 450 volts.
These results led to variations on his original experiment...
Venue moved to seedy offices = 48% (Obedience Rate - 450 Volts)
Teacher & Learner in the same room = 40%
Teacher had to force learners hand onto shock panel = 30%
Teacher given support from 2 teachers who refuse = 10%
Teacher paired with an assistant who administrated shocks = Very little difference
Experimenter instructs teacher from another room = 21% PRO'S + CON'S Lacked ecological validity
Deception of participants
Volunteer Bias
Results aren't generalisable
Leading Q's used by scientists
Subjective - Individual Differences Gained an insight into obedience
Participants were provided with a debrief post-experiment.
Only 2% suffered from lasting stress/anxiety.
Led to follow up research. WHY OBEY? Hofling (1966)
- Hospital P+F: 22 night nurses, USA, administer 20mg (max is 10mg) following phone call.

21 out of the 22 obeyed the telephone instruction. Explanations of why people Obey Gradual Commitment = Easier to continue with something you started/see it through. Gain commitment as you progress. Agentic Shift = The Autonomous State + The Agentic State
The Autonomous State = People direct their own actions and take responsibility for the results of those actions.
The Agentic State = People allow others to direct their actions & then pass off the responsibility for the consequences to the person giving the orders. Buffers = To protect a person from seeing the victim/consequences of actions. Buffer is present, obedience rates can be quite high. Justifying Obedience = If a sound justification/reason can be provided, this can increase obedience rates. EVALUATION OF EXPLANATION
OF OBEDIENCE Evaluations of Explanations of Obedience Monocausal Emphasis = Each person is socialised into norms & values that determine their behaviour and rates of obedience. Agentic Shift = May not be the only psychological process that determines obedience rates. The level of harm a person inflicts cannot be explained by Agentic Shift. People cannot shift between two states as humans are not passive, they are active & have ability to reason. Obedience Alibi = Just obeying an order cannot be the only reason to explain a person's actions. Greater human ethics impact our behaviour. Mandel (1996) & Goldhagen (1996) INDIVIDUAL
DIFFERENCES Individual Differences Locus of Control (Rotter - 1954)
= A continuum from internal to external locus of control.
Internal = Yourself, comes from within.
External = Other factors, not your fault.

Twenge et al - 2004
= Meta-analysis found that young Americans increasingly believe that their lives are controlled by outside force rather than their own behaviour. INDEPENDENCE Independence Resisting pressures to conform: Insight From Asch = If social support is available people are less likely to conform (resist influence).
Moral Consideration = If there is moral judgement involved, which includes a cost to one's integrity. Influence may be resisted.
The Nonconformist Personality = Some people are independent & will not be concerned with social norms; therefore they can resist influence. Resisting pressures to Obey: Insight From Milgram = The situation and environment has an impact on obedience
Moral Considerations = If there is moral judgement involved, which includes a cost to one's integrity. People will disobey.
Social Heroism = Zimbardo argues that the majority of individuals bow to the demands of authority, some resist regardless of consequences. These are social heroes. E.G- Nelson Mandela. MINORITY
INFLUENCE Moscovivi (1985) - 'Green/Blue' PROCEDURE: Laboratory Experiment, Participants asked to estimate colour of 36 slides. All slides were blue but of varying brightness.
Participants were tested for colour blindness & then randomly allocated to either Constant, Inconsistent, or Control Condition.
Each condition consisted of 6 participants; 4 Naive participants (majority) & 2 Confederates (minority).
In the Consistent Condition, the 2 Confederates described all 36 slides as Green.
In the Inconsistent Condition the 2 Confederates described 24 of the slides as Green & the remaining 12 slides as Blue.
In the Control Condition, there were no confederates. FINDINGS:
In the Consistent Condition; 8.4% of the participants' answers were green & 32% conformed at least once.
In the Inconsistent Condition 1.3% of the participants' answers were green.
In the Control Condition only 0.25% of the participants' answers green.
Consistent Condition showed the greatest yielding to minority influence. PRO'S + CON'S Lacked Ecological Validity
Deception of participants
Lacked Internal Validity
Results aren't generalisable
Lacked Experimental Realism
Subjective - Individual Differences Gained an insight into how the minority can affect the majority.
Relate it to real life scenario's - Practical Applications.
Relates to Social Heroes. Definitions:
Snowballing = When a group starts off as a minority and grows & grows into a majority.
Social Cryptoamnesia = Where society forgets there were other ways. Psychology Revision Abnormality Abnormality =
A psychological condition or behaviour which differs from the norms or is harmful or distressing to the individuals around them. Psychopathology = The study of Abnormality through mental disorders and abnormal behaviours. GLOSSARY
Social Norms This sees any behaviour which differs from that which society expects, as abnormal. Pro's:
Practical Applications.
Help to improve quality of lives. Con's:
Culturally Biased.
Not a universal definition.
Individual Differences. Psychology Revision Stress Deviation From
Ideal Mental Health This sees any behaviour which perfect psychological health as abnormal. Pro's:
Practical Applications.
Help to improve quality of lives. Con's:
Culturally Biased.
Not a universal definition.
Individual Differences. Failure To Function
Adequately This sees any person who fails to function and to cope with everyday life is abnormal. Pro's:
Practical Applications.
Help to improve quality of lives. Con's:
Culturally Biased.
Not a universal definition.
Individual Differences. Links to Jahoda=
Here's what you need to be doing to be normal, if you don't comply, you're abnormal. BIOLOGICAL
EXPLANATION The Biological Approach Genetics = The genes we inherit from our parents provide the 'blueprint' for our bodies and brains.
E.G - Abnormalities are inherited, Genetic predisposition.
Gottesman 'Twins' with schizophrenia.
Neuro-chemistry = To operate properly, the brain relies on chemicals all being correctly balanced. Too much or too little can lead to abnormality
E.G - Bipolar Disorder, Depression is caused by lack of serotonin.
Infection = The brain has no immune response, it relies on it's barriers to keep out infections. Therefore, if the barrier is broken, infections can caused widespread damage leading to abnormalities.
E.G - Virus on the brain, Clive Warning.
Neuro-anatomy = The brains structure can be damaged or improperly formed during development, leading to abnormalities.
E.G - Physical damage to the brain, Brain scanning. BIOLOGICAL
THERAPIES The Biological Therapies - Drugs The Biological Therapies - ECT Neuron Synapse Chemical Messages Neurotransmitters Anti-anxiety:
Beta-Blockers = Slows down/limits the production of adrenaline and noradrenaline by receptors attaching to the heart decreasing a rapid heart movement.
Benzodiazepines = Produces our natural anti-anxiety GABA to a larger scale. Placebo Effect =
Statistics show the placebo drug has been shown to make people feel better despite the drug not being real.
These results are shown to only be 35% accurate. - Menlow et al.
Ethical Issues ECT (Electro Convulsive Therapy) =
Resets the balance of neurotransmitters in the brain.
Used for major depression. -Sad -Unipolar
Used when patient becomes drug resistant
2 Types =
Unilateral ECT = 1 electrode on forehead + 1 electrode on the temple.
Bilateral ECT = Both on each side of the temple. Insert a barbiturate (causes unconsciousness).
Then omit oxygen
Insert a nerve blocking agent (paralyse muscles).
Then a current at 0.6amps is run through your brain for 1/2 a second.
Then an extreme seizure for around 1 minute.
3 sessions a week = 3-15 treatments. PRO'S + CON'S OF ECT: Outcome in unknown.
Side effects are major - Memory Loss.
Very Intrusive - physically changes. your brain.
84% of ECT patients relapse 6 months later.
Ethical Issues.
No idea how/why it works. It's a last resort to save lives
It's more regulated now so side effects are lessened.
'Comer' = 60-70% of ECT patients see a reduction in symptoms. THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH Meet The Psyche The ID = This is the animal part of psyche & id governed by instinctual drives like food, drink and sex. It's general motive is the satisfaction of these desires. If frustrated becomes aggressive. (From Birth). The SUPEREGO = This is the moral part of the psyche & is governed by the need to behave in ways our parents would approve of. When we don't, it punishes us with anxiety & guilt. (Right & Wrong) (Good Impressions) (3-6 years). The EGO = This is the part of the psyche concerned with reality. It tries to balance out the demands of the ID with the constraints of the Superego in a way that is realistically possible. (Reality Principles) (Balances ID + Superego) (1-2 Years). The Psychodynamic
Approach Oral =
0 - 18 Months.
Breast Feeding & Weaning.
Orally Aggressive: Too Soon&Too Late.
Too Soon: Chewing Gum or Ends of Pens.
Too Late: Smoking/Over-eating.
Fixation - Passive, Gullable, Immature, Manipulative Personality. Anal =
1 - 3 Years.
Bowel & Bladder Elimination.
Toilet Training.
Anally Retentive - Obsessively organised, anal expulsive.
Anally Expulsive - Reckless, Careless, Defiant, Disorganised. Phallic =
3 - 6 Years.
Gender Discovery.
Oedipus Complex: If boys never identify with father. (Only in boys according to Freud) (Desire for mother & want to kill mother).
Electra Complex: If girls never identify with mother. (Penis Envy) Psychodynamic
Therapies Psychoanalysis =
Form of psychopathology.
Uncover unconscious thoughts - bring to conscious
Repressed Memories
Negative Memories
Patients unaware of behavioural causes. Free Association =
Expressing all thoughts.
Associations determined by unconscious thoughts.
Therapist interprets your associations Role of the therapist =
A psychiatrist listens to a patient talk whilst making notes & drawings.
Patient may initially change subject to draw attention away from suppressed memories.
But later they transference (open up to conflicts and use psychiatrist as despised parent).
4-5 per week up to 5 years. PRO'S + CON'S OF THERAPIES: Lacks scientific evidence.
Lacks scientific support.
Psychiatric Bias - Each psychiatrist may interpret patients feelings/opinions differently.
Not appropriate for all cases. Bergin (1972) = Analysed data from 10,000 patient histories & estimated that 80% benefited from psychoanalysis compared to 65% from eccentric therapies
Not reliant on drugs. PRO'S + CON'S OF THERAPIES: Not very objective.
Ethically deceiving to patient.
May be aware of Freud and his work.
Protection of participants.
Traumatic. Tschushke et al (2007) = Investigated a large study on long-term psychodynamic treatment. > 450 patients included & found that the longer the psychotherpeutic treatments lasted, better the outcomes.
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