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Chapter 15

Digestive System
by

Derek Harrington

on 29 April 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 15

Digestive System pg. 502-527 Key Concepts
Why does your body need food?
How do the six nutrients needed by the body help carry out essential processes?
How can the Food Guide Pyramid and food labels help you have a healthy diet? Key Terms
nutrient
calorie
carbohydrate
glucose
fat
protein
amino acid
vitamin
mineral
Food Pyramid Guide
Percent Daily ValueDietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Nutrients:
Raw materials body needs for essential processes
6 Groups of nutrients 6 Nutrients:
Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Water Energy:
Calorie ("C" is the base unit)
Definition- "Amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celsius"
One calorie is the same as = 1,000 kcal Carbohydrates Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen One gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories of energy Simple carbohydrates: glucose Complex carbohydrates: Starch Fibre- responsible for keeping the digestive system moving Fats Contain twice as much energy than carbohydrates One gram of fat = 9 calories of energy Fats form part of the cell membrane
Insulates your body
Protects organs Saturated Fats:
Usually solid
Meat and Dairy products Unsaturated Fats: Healthy
Usually liquids
Cooking oils Trans Fats:
Manufacturers add hydrogen to the oils
adds freshness for longer
margarine, chips Cholesterol:
Liver naturally produces it
important for your cells Proteins Tissue Growth and Repair Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen 20 Amino acid combinations make thousands of protein chains Food Examples: Complete: Contain ALL Amino Acids- Meat,eggs
Incomplete: Missing some Amino Acids- nuts, beans, grains. Vitamins and Minerals Water 65% of a persons body weight Digestive System Key Concepts
What functions are carried out in the digestive system?
What roles do the mouth, esophagus, and stomach play in digestion?
Key Terms
digestion
absorption
saliva
enzyme
epiglottis
esophagus
mucus
peristalsis
stomach Mechanical and Chemical Mouth Incisors- cut the food into bite size pieces Canines- tear and slash the food Pre-molars and Molars- crush and grind the food Saliva- Enzyme molecule that breaks down starch into simpler sugars (Lock and key hypothesis) Esophagus Epiglottis, Mucus Epiglottis- Opening to your windpipe is protected by a small flap, that should prevent food from going down the wrong tract (Lifesaver mints) Mucus- thick liquid that helps/lines the tract that allows food to travel through the correct muscular tube. http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=faq&dbid=16#digestion Peristalsis- Involuntary smooth muscle , contractions that move the food. The Stomach Mechanical and Chemical Small Intestine and Large Intestine Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas Small intestine- name given for its small 2-3 cm opening, even though it is 2/3 of the length of the digestive system!!! "Almost all chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine." Liver- the largest organ inside the body.The liver breaks down medicines and removes nitrogen. Its main function is to produce bile. Bile- breaks up fatty molecules. Bile travels from the liver through a tube into the gallbladder. Gallbladder- stores bile Pancreas- produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine to help break down starches, proteins and fat (droplets). Fiber is NOT broken down but helps the liquid to become thicker, thus aiding peristalsis. Villi- finger like structures in the small intestine,responsible for absorbing nutrient molecules. The nutrient molecules are then passed from the villi into blood vessels to be used by cells throughout the body. Large Intestine Final part of the digestive system Contains bacteria that feed on the remaining food supply. They also produce Vitamin K. Water is absorbed in the large intestine, into the bloodstream. The remaining food passes to the rectum where waste is compressed into a solid form and is eliminated through the anus. "Poop there it is" http://www.zerobio.com/target_practice_quiz/target_practice_quiz_digestion.htm
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