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Cycling of Matter

Climate Change Summative
by

Sabrina Lin

on 15 June 2013

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Transcript of Cycling of Matter

THE CYCLING OF MATTER
AND THE CLIMATE SYSTEM
THE
THE
THE
CYCLE
CARBON
BIOGEOCHEMICAL
CYCLE
CYCLE
NITROGEN
BACKGROUND (what the carbon cycle is)
HOW IT WORKS (how the carbon cycle funtions)
CARBON STORES (the five major carbon stores)
THE GLOBAL CARBON BUDGET (how carbon exchange takes place)
HOW HUMANS AFFECT THE CARBON CYCLE (global warming)
→Photosynthesis: Plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere during Photosynthesis

How is Carbon Dioxide naturally added or removed from the environment?
BACKGROUND:
→Respiration: When we breathe out, we introduce CO2 to the environment
That's actually just a tiny part of what is called “The Carbon Cycle”
The cycling of carbon in our environment.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
THE ATMOSPHERE
(CO2, CH4, CFC)
FOSSIL FUELS
THE OCEANS
MARINE SEDIMENTS
VEGETATION, SOIL
& ORGANIC MATTER
Fossil Fuel Combustion
SEDIMENTARY
ROCKS
Volcanic Eruptions
Respiration/
Decomposition
Dissolving of Carbon
in top layers of ocean
CARBON STORES:
→Marine Sediments and Sedimentary Rock
(68,000,000 to 100,000,000 gigatonnes for millions or billions of years)


The carbon in our environment can be found in many different stores on Earth:
→Oceans (39,000 gigatonnes for 500 to 1000 years)
→Fossil Fuels – Coal, Oil, Gas
(3,300 gigatonnes for hundreds of millions of years)
→Vegetation, Soil, Organic Matter (2,115 gigatonnes 5 to 25 years)
→Atmosphere (750 gigatonnes for 50 to 500 years)
THE GLOBAL CARBON BUDGET
The Global Carbon Budget is a way of describing the exchanges of carbon in different parts of the carbon cycle.
Respiration of plants and animals +
Decomposition of dead matter by microorganisms
Vegetation, Soil, Organic Matter → Atmosphere

HOW HUMAN ACTIVITIES AFFECT THE CARBON CYCLE:
Humans alter the carbon cycle by changing the relative amounts of carbon in each store and the length of time that carbon remains in each store. By doing this, we are causing the cycle go out of balance.
Carbon compounds are normally stored as fossil fuels for hundreds of millions of years. When humans burn fossil fuels for their cars or electricity, these carbon compounds are released into the atmosphere much quicker and at much higher rates than they would naturally.

for example:
This causes a carbon buildup in the atmosphere, which is one of the reasons why global warming is occurring today.
what exactly happens when the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere increases?
This inability to absorb carbon causes even more of a carbon buildup in the atmosphere. This increases global temperatures, hence why we have global warming today.

The oceans begin to absorb additional CO2 from the atmosphere to reduce the amount of carbon there.
This absorption causes the oceans to become warmer and more acidic, reducing their ability to absorb carbon dioxide as it's naturally meant to.
LEARNING GOAL:
To learn how the nitrogen cycle effects climate change and the environment around us.
One half of all nitrogen fixation occurs because of agriculture.
100 millions tonnes of nitrogen fertilizer is produced each year.
One third to the earth's population is sustained by nitrogen fertilized crops.

AGRICULTURE
When crops are fertilized more then they can use, the excess nitrogen builds up in the soil.
Then, precipitation washes excess nitrogen into water ways.
Once in water ways nitrates cause rapid growth of algae and aquatic plants.
Algae suffocates aquatic organisms that rely oxygen and the algae clogs up the water ways.
Nitrates in drinking water can cause cancer.

Water Pollution and the Nitrogen Cycle:

DEAD ZONES:
They are created at mouths of rivers when fertilizers, sewage and manure drain into ocean.
This causes aquatic animals to die.
Decomposition of algae and algae growth both use oxygen.
Dead zones are unsustainable for any organisms that use oxygen.
Dead Zones – areas where waterways have a growth of algae that removes the oxygen from the water.
In Canada, the most noticeable areas are Quebec, and Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba.

150 dead zones exist in the world which cover hundreds of thousands of square kilometres
NH₄ (Ammonia) is created by livestock, when it reacts with air it creates smog.
Agriculture creates the gas N₂O
Combustion of fossil fuels such as factory fumes adds millions of tonnes of nitrogen to the atmosphere.
Reactive nitrogen in the atmosphere can also break down the ozone.
Air Pollution
Nitric oxide from vehicle exhaust is the main component for ground level ozone and smog.
Reactive forms of nitrogen react with moisture in the atmosphere to create HNO₃.
Air Pollution
- This results in acid rain that destroys lakes, soil, vegetation, bridges and buildings.
WHAT IS IT?
Earth and its atmosphere behave as a closed system, and it contains a fixed amount of matter
An increase in matter in one part of the system is balanced by a decrease in that matter in another part of the system
Concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is rising, and it comes from other deposits of that matter

the biogeochemical cycle:
Biogeochemical cycle is a natural process that exchanges matter and energy from the abiotic environment to the biotic environment and back

NITROGEN FIXATION:
Nitrogen fixation: the process by which atmospheric nitrogen is changed into forms that can be used by plants and other organisms
Converts nitrogen gas into nitrates and ammonia


1. Extreme temperature around lightning allows nitrogen to bond
with oxygen to create nitrates
2. Bacteria converts atmospheric nitrogen into a form plants can use
3. Haber-Bosch process. Uses high temperatures to create
ammonium, which is used for fertilizers, it is a human activity

Three methods of nitrogen fixation:
REDUCING THE EFFECT OF
NITROGEN
ON CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate scientists hope to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that enter the atmosphere by reducing the amount of excess nitrogen produced and used by farmers and other industries

They want to teach farmers about proper fertilizer use, which means that less nitrogen would be available for fixation. This would in turn reduce dead zones in the area
Precision farming is being introduced to Canada. It used satellites and geographic systems to determine how much and where fertilizer is needed. Farmers can use the exact amount of fertilizer needed, reducing runoff
By Chloe, Declan, and Sabrina
LEARNING GOALS:
THE ATMOSPHERE
(CO2, CH4, CFC)
FOSSIL FUELS
THE OCEANS
MARINE SEDIMENTS
VEGETATION, SOIL
& ORGANIC MATTER
Fossil Fuel Combustion
SEDIMENTARY
ROCKS
Volcanic Eruptions
Respiration/
Decomposition
Dissolving of Carbon
in top layers of ocean
LEARNING GOALS
to understand how matter is cycled in the environment
to understand the concept of "stores"
Disruption in the carbon and nitrogen cycles by humans has been a significant cause of climate change
Humans alter the balance by rapidly releasing large amounts of material from stores
Cycle is usually in balance because a store will release the same amount of matter that it receives
Places where matter is stored and accumulated for a long period of time is known as a store, or reservoir
AGRICULTURE
One half of all nitrogen fixation occurs because of agriculture.
100 millions tonnes of nitrogen fertilizer is produced each year.
One third to the earth's population is sustained by nitrogen fertilized crops.

HOW IT WORKS:
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Kreger, Chris. "Carbon Cycle." Carbon Cycle. Center for Educational Technologies, 10 Nov. 2004. Web. 09 June 2013.
Dickinson, Tom. On Science 10. Toronto, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2009. Print.
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. (2011, April 7). Environmental Impacts of Nitrogen Use in Agriculture. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/facts/05-073.htm

National Institute of Environmental Health. (2004 , July). Global Nitrogen: Cycling out of Control. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1247398/
LEARNING GOALS:
To understand what the biogeochemical cycle is and how it works
To understand the carbon and nitrogen cycles and their impacts on our environment
To understand how humans impact the nutrient cycles and their resulting impacts on the environment as a whole
conclusion:
Carbon and nitrogen cycles through living organisms quickly, but there are also stores where they stay for an extended period of time
Carbon has five main stores: living things, oceans, rocks, fossil fuels, and the atmosphere
Human activities release CO2 into the atmosphere, which is resulting in climate change
Nitrogen fixation occurs when atmospheric nitrogen is changed into usable forms by plants, organisms etc.
Human activities (ie. fertilizers) have increased the amount of nitrogen in rivers, lakes, and oceans. This is causing algal blooms that are resulting in dead zones around the world
HUMAN IMPACTS ON THE NITROGEN CYCLE:
Carbon sinks to the bottom of the ocean
Plants and Microorganisms
break down
HOW DO THESE CHANGES OCCUR??
THE ATMOSPHERE
(CO2, CH4, CFC)
FOSSIL FUELS
THE OCEANS
MARINE SEDIMENTS
VEGETATION, SOIL
& ORGANIC MATTER
Fossil Fuel Combustion
SEDIMENTARY
ROCKS
Volcanic Eruptions
Respiration/
Decomposition
Dissolving of Carbon
in top layers of ocean
Carbon sinks to the bottom of the ocean
Plants and Microorganisms
break down
Limestone breaks down
Limestone breaks down
Fossil Fuels → Atmosphere

Combustion + Volcanic Eruption
Atmosphere Ocean

Dissolving of carbon in the warmer surface waters
Ocean Marine Sediments
Dissolving of carbon to the bottom of the ocean
*In a balanced carbon budget, the rate at which carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere is approximately equal to the rate at which it leaves the atmosphere
Sedimentary Rock Fossil Fuels
When limestone breaks down
Full transcript