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Early American Civilizations

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by

Lisa Healow

on 30 October 2017

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Transcript of Early American Civilizations

North America


4. In what region would farming have been most viable?

5. Which South American countries have part of the Amazon Rainforest?

6. What regions are in Mexico?

7. Where else in the world might you find cold forest and tundra?
a. Ethiopia b. Russia
c. Japan d. Afghanistan
1. There is the grassland region in which South American countries?

2. What country has the most cold forest and tundra region?

3. The Rocky Mountains lie on a fault that connect them to
a. the Andes Mountains.
b. the Appalachian Mountains.
c. the Yucatan Peninsula.
d. the Amazon Basin.
Southwest
Hohokam
300 BCE - 1500 CE
developed on Gila and Salt Rivers
significant because they developed the only irrigation canals in North America
Anasazi (Ancestral Pueblo People)
100 BCE - 1300 CE
developed at Four Corners (where Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico meet)
Pueblo people named after the homes they built
Moundbuilders
3400 BCE - 1500s CE
built near the Great Lakes and in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys
mounds were built 1,000 years before pyramids in Egypt
purpose of mounds was religious, ceremonial, burial, and residential
Mesoamerica
Toltec
Zapotec
Olmec
1200 BCE - 300 CE
Gulf Coast of southern Mexico
towns contained giant stone heads - historians believe this indicates towns served as political and religious centers
invented a calendar and may have been the first in Mesoamerica to use writing
1500 BCE - 750 CE
southern Mexico
built the first city in Mesoamerica in 500 CE: Monte Alban
Monte Alban had a population of around 35,000 people who lived in fifteen residential neighborhoods
900-1200 CE
highlands of central Mexico
militaristic society, as shown by carvings of warriors in their art and architecture
trading center due to proximity to Obsidian mines
Chavin
Moche
Nazca
900-200 BCE
Peru highlands
built on the slope of the Andes mountains, which gave farmers access to several different ecological zones and thus the ability to grow different crops, like corn and potatoes, and raise animals, like llamas and alpacas
400 BCE - 600 CE
coastal desert of Peru
built irrigation canals from streams of Andes
well known for pottery, which featured scenes from daily life
200 BCE - 600 CE
coastal desert of Peru
well known for huge, highly complex geometric shape designs made on the desert floor; the largest figures are 660 feet across; historians differ as to what the purpose of the lines were, but one theory is
"The geometric [lines] could indicate the flow of water or be connected to rituals to summon water. The spiders, birds, and plants could be fertility symbols. Other possible explanations include irrigation schemes or giant astronomical calendars."
Early American Civilizations
South America
North
Aleut
c 6500 BCE
occupied the entire Aleutian chains well as significant portions of the Alaska Peninsula and surrounding islands
Aleuts practiced mummification as part of their religious and spiritual rituals
Alutiiq
c 5500 BCE
occupied Kodiak Island and parts of the Alaska and Kenai Peninsulas
early tools designed by Alutiiq on Kodiak Island include ulus and perhaps the first oil lamps
Yup'ik
c 7000 BCE
occupied much of coastal Western Alaska from the Bering Sea to the Chukchi Sea, including St. Lawrence Island
Yup'ik are the most culturally diverse group of Alaska Natives because of the diverse environments that they had to adapt to
Inupiat
c 8000 BCE
occupied much of coastal and interior Northwestern Alaska, including the Bering Strait and the Norton and Kotzebue Sounds
Inupiats developed tools and technology befitting their northern climate, including goggles that protected eyes from the glare of the sun on snow
Athabascan
c 9500 BCE
occupied interior Alaska, including the Dena'ina people who lived in present-day Anchorage
the importance of dogs in Athabascan life led to the development of the Alaskan Husky and the popularity of the Alaska state sport of dog mushing
Tlingit and Haida
c 7300 BCE
occupied nearly all of Southeast Alaska and into the north coast of British Columbia, Canada
Tlingit and Haida share many similar social and cultural patterns, but have unrelated languages and distinct ethnic identities
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