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Classical Conditioning - Prezi style!

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Ben Northshield

on 20 March 2011

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Transcript of Classical Conditioning - Prezi style!

Unit IV
Chapter 9: Behavioral Learning Learning refers to any relatively permanent change in behavior. There are different ways in which we learn.

Behaviorism and Psychology

J.B Watson was the first psychologist to argue that we should study only those things we can observe: Stimuli and Responses

Did not discuss mental processes as they can not be observed

Learning is a change in the response to some stimulus

Two types of conditioning: classical and operant

T1: Classical Conditioning

Learning an association between two stimuli: A previously neutral stimulus comes to function like some other stimulus

First studied extensively by Pavlov

Stages of Classical Conditioning

1. Before learning occurs: A stimulus produces a response automatically

Example: food makes a dog salivate. The unconditioned stimulus produces an unconditioned response

2. The learning process: A neutral stimulus is associated with the original stimulus

Example: a bell is rung when the food is given. Present a neutral stimulus slightly before the unconditioned stimulus

After learning: The neutral stimulus now produces the response. Conditioning occurs: The conditioned stimulus now elicits the conditioned response
T2. Explanations for Classical Conditioning

The traditional view: Conditioning is an automatic association between UCS and CS

The modern view: The CS is a signal, providing information about the UCS

Classical conditioning and Expectancies:

The CS (conditioned stimulus) must be presented before the UCS (unconditioned stimulus).

The order in which the CS and UCS are presented is important.

T3: Processes Associated with Classical Conditioning

Generalization: similar stimuli as the conditioned stimulus may produce a similar reaction as the conditioned response

Extinction: conditioned responses do not last forever

T4: Classical Conditioning in Humans

Why is classical conditioning important?

It occurs mostly with emotional responses: fear, anger, delight, disgust

Phobias: How you might learn to fear snakes

Stage 1: At any time, your parent's panic (UCS) makes you afraid (UCR)

Stage 2: The sight of a snake (CS) is followed by parent's panic response (UCS)

Stage 3: The snake alone (CS) now makes you afraid (CR)

T5. Operant Conditioning

Learning the consequences of our behavior: What will happen if I behave this way?

Law of effect: behavior that is followed by a reward is more likely to recur

Operant conditioning was first studied by B.F. Skinner

T6: Four Kinds of Operant Conditioning

Critical Questions

Do you want to strengthen a response or weaken a response? (Reinforce/Punish)

Will you present a stimulus or remove a stimulus? (Positive/Negative)

Will you use pleasant stimuli or unpleasant stimuli?

The answers to these questions define the four types of operant conditioning you use

1. Positive Reinforcement 2. Negative Reinforcement

3. Positive Punishment 4. Negative Punishment

Positive Reinforcement
Wait for the desired response to occur
Present a reward. This strengthens the preceding response
Negative Reinforcement
Start with something unpleasant. Wait for the desired response to occur
Remove the unpleasant stimulus. This strengthens the preceding response

The End!
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