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Classical Conditioning - Prezi style!
Transcript of Classical Conditioning - Prezi style!
Chapter 9: Behavioral Learning Learning refers to any relatively permanent change in behavior. There are different ways in which we learn.
Behaviorism and Psychology
J.B Watson was the first psychologist to argue that we should study only those things we can observe: Stimuli and Responses
Did not discuss mental processes as they can not be observed
Learning is a change in the response to some stimulus
Two types of conditioning: classical and operant
T1: Classical Conditioning
Learning an association between two stimuli: A previously neutral stimulus comes to function like some other stimulus
First studied extensively by Pavlov
Stages of Classical Conditioning
1. Before learning occurs: A stimulus produces a response automatically
Example: food makes a dog salivate. The unconditioned stimulus produces an unconditioned response
2. The learning process: A neutral stimulus is associated with the original stimulus
Example: a bell is rung when the food is given. Present a neutral stimulus slightly before the unconditioned stimulus
After learning: The neutral stimulus now produces the response. Conditioning occurs: The conditioned stimulus now elicits the conditioned response
T2. Explanations for Classical Conditioning
The traditional view: Conditioning is an automatic association between UCS and CS
The modern view: The CS is a signal, providing information about the UCS
Classical conditioning and Expectancies:
The CS (conditioned stimulus) must be presented before the UCS (unconditioned stimulus).
The order in which the CS and UCS are presented is important.
T3: Processes Associated with Classical Conditioning
Generalization: similar stimuli as the conditioned stimulus may produce a similar reaction as the conditioned response
Extinction: conditioned responses do not last forever
T4: Classical Conditioning in Humans
Why is classical conditioning important?
It occurs mostly with emotional responses: fear, anger, delight, disgust
Phobias: How you might learn to fear snakes
Stage 1: At any time, your parent's panic (UCS) makes you afraid (UCR)
Stage 2: The sight of a snake (CS) is followed by parent's panic response (UCS)
Stage 3: The snake alone (CS) now makes you afraid (CR)
T5. Operant Conditioning
Learning the consequences of our behavior: What will happen if I behave this way?
Law of effect: behavior that is followed by a reward is more likely to recur
Operant conditioning was first studied by B.F. Skinner
T6: Four Kinds of Operant Conditioning
Do you want to strengthen a response or weaken a response? (Reinforce/Punish)
Will you present a stimulus or remove a stimulus? (Positive/Negative)
Will you use pleasant stimuli or unpleasant stimuli?
The answers to these questions define the four types of operant conditioning you use
1. Positive Reinforcement 2. Negative Reinforcement
3. Positive Punishment 4. Negative Punishment
Wait for the desired response to occur
Present a reward. This strengthens the preceding response
Start with something unpleasant. Wait for the desired response to occur
Remove the unpleasant stimulus. This strengthens the preceding response