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Native Americans

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on 13 May 2015

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Transcript of Native Americans

Classroom Implications/Issues
U.S. Schools Are Teaching Our Children That Native Americans Are History by Lisa Wade
Incorporating into the Classroom Curriculum
High School: Waterlily by Ella Cara Deloria; Code Talker: A Novel about the Navajo Marines of World War Two by Joseph Bruchac




Immigration Patterns
American Indians did not enter as immigrants in pursuit of the the American Dream. Indians lived in the Americas when the Europeans first arrived and were forcibly incorporated into the US society through conquest and colonization.


Native Americans
Problem & Issues Native Americans Face
Cultural Traditions
Sarah Shear examined academic standards for elementary and secondary school education in all 50 states
Found 87% of the population saw Native Americans as a population that only existed prior to 1900
Curriculum portray them as inevitable conflict that colonizers handled reasonably.
Native American culture revolved heavily upon nature and every aspect of their lives is based on Earth.
They would never waste any part of the animal and would eat the meat, use the hides to make clothing, use the bones to make tools and weapons.
They lived off of the land as hunters and gatherers.
They worshiped the spirits of animals but that also hunted them for food and clothing.
Demographics
According to U.S. Census Bureau in 2013, there were roughly 5.2 million American Indians and Alaska Natives living in the U.S., representing approximately 2% of the U.S. total population.

The projected U.S. population of American Indians and Alaska Natives for July 1, 2060 is estimated to reach 11.2 million, constituting approximately 2.7% of the U.S. population by that date
States with the highest proportion of American Indians and Alaska Natives: Alaska (19.5%), Oklahoma (12.9%), New Mexico (10.7%).


Native people die at higher rates than other Americans from:
tuberculosis: 600% higher
alcoholism: 510% higher
diabetes: 189% higher
vehicle crashes: 229% higher
injuries: 152% higher
suicide: 62% higher

Indian youth have the highest rate of suicide among all ethnic groups in the US and is the second-leading cause of death for Native youth aged 15-24
Health
Problems and issues Native American face
Education
Only 5 % of American Indians and Alaska Natives have received graduate or professional degrees, compared to 10% for the total population, and only 9% of American Indians have earned bachelor’s degrees compared to 19% for the US population.


School Drop outs:
The rate of dropouts are about twice as high with Hispanic/Latino and American Indian youth as well as in urban settings
Indian Removal Act
This act was passed in 1830 by the Congress. This act was brought upon by Andrew Jackson. The Indian Removal Act forced migration of American Indians from their homelands. This required the American Indians to relocate only on condition of their consent, This resulted the federal government to forcibly remove those who lived in the east of Mississippi to reservation lands attained through the Louisiana Purchase.
Trail of Tears
About 4,000 Cherokees died during the forced march out of the South to territory in present day Oklahoma.

Ethnocentrism and cultural conflict played a huge role in the conflict between European American and Native American

Issues teachers face and ways to respond to these issues
Health problems
SES (low)
School drop outs
Beliefs
History
Misconceptions
Misconceptions
Teachers may deal with a great deal of misconceptions and must clarify these to all students.
1. They want to be called Native American not American Indian
2
. They were hungry savages
3.They were not nearly as advanced as the European Americans
4. They were a bunch of smokers (Peace Pipe)
7. Their medicine was primitive
8. There is Indian Royalty
9. They don't have to pay taxes
10. They still live in reservations
5. They all lived in TeePees
6. They only worship nature
Religion
Religion Cont.'
History
• Did not write down or
record history

• Recordings of first
Europeans

• Artifacts and weapons

• Traditions

• Stories passed down
from generation to
generation

• Term “American Indian” is defined by the
people of the US.

• More than 12,000 years ago, the Paleo-Indians, hiked
across a “land bridge”

• Spread across North and South America.

• American Indians lived here before Columbus and the Europeans arrived

• Before European contact, Native Americans cultivated plants for food, dyes, medicines; domesticated animals; established trade; produced architecture, developed religious beliefs; and constructed social and political organization.

• Not only adapted, but reshaped natural environment to meet their needs

• Overall peaceful people, enjoyed family, prayer
and creativity and nature was of
utmost importance.

• “Indian” originated with Christopher Columbus. He thought he had reached the East Indies and named the inhabitants Indians.

• Arrival of Europeans in the New World brought struggles, hardships and less peaceful times

• European settlers brought diseases to America, which the Native Americans had no resistance to; population decline

• Indian Removal Act of 1840

• Trail of Tears

1924- declared citizens




Native American religion is hard to define because every tribe is different, and religious principles were passed down verbally.
Overall, it tends to focus on nature i.e., trees, animals, plants, mountains, rivers and celestial bodies in space such as, the Sun, moon, planets & stars.
Symbolism, mainly with animals, is another common part of their religion.
They believe that the spirit of the animals live on in spirit within the tribe.
Native American religion includes a number of ceremonies, practices & traditions.
The practice of taking hallucinogens was commonly used to gain insight and connect to the gods.
The ceremonies may include feasts, dances, music and other performances.
Shaman and medicine men took the place of priests and were said to communicate with the Gods.
Food

Native american got their food via hunting and fishing, gathering, and farming.
The most important indian food crop was corn (maize).
The majority of indian tribes grew corn.
Most tribes had meat-heavy diets and they ate buffalo, elk, caribou, rabbit, duck & other birds, and salmon & other fish.
They also ate other natural foods such as eggs, honey, nuts, fruits, and a wide variety of beans, greens & roots.
Clothing
In most tribes, men wore breechcloths (a long rectangular piece of hide/cloth tucked over a belt so the flaps cover the front & behind.
Women wore skirts or leggings, tunics, and dresses but in some tribes, tops were considered optional.
Cloaks and fur parcas were worn during cold weather.
Buckskins, ribbon dresses, and beaded mocassins were worn for formal events.
Headdresses and dance shawls were worn for religious ceremonies.
Brittany Rudy, Michele Dollar, Gisele Garcia, & Daisy De La Cruz
Incorporating into the Classroom Curriculum
Elementary:
Jingle Dancer by Cynthia Leitch Smith & Night of the Full Moon by Gloria Wehlan


Incorporating into the Classroom Curriculum


Junior High School: Who Will Tell My Brother? By Marlene Carvell
Full transcript