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The Niger River (Delta)

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priyanshi sharma

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of The Niger River (Delta)

The Niger River!!
The Pelvicachromism Pulcher, lives in shallow waters, the Niger river. it comes from the cichlid family, and is popular amongst aquarium hobbyists.

the male fish is more attracted to the female fish with a bigger purple pelvic fin. Females have a shorter bodied, darker, and more intense/stronger belly coloration. Have rounded fins whilst;while males are bigger, longer with more of a long pointed fins (s).

-eats a variety of plant matter; something that come from a plant, an example of this would be soil, tree bark, apple peels, and many more, anything that comes form a plant. invertebrates; animals that lack/ don't have a backbone ex: worms, small animals. diatoms; a major group of algae; nonflowering plant, are among large groups, this includes seaweed, also includes many single-celled forms. Algae contain chlorophyll which are among most common types of phytoplankton's. green algae. algae and higher plants in the wild.

nesting amongst dead leaf litter and depressions around plants
is a omnivorous.
Pelvicachromis Pulcher
the path it flows from
did you know facts
Niger is the third longest river in Africa. The Nile and Congo rivers are longer. This river has enough water to sate (satisfy/end) the thirst of the entire population and their land. (Niamey is the capital and largest city in/of the West African country Niger). Only 60 percent of Niger’s population has access to potable (drinkable) water.
the Atlantic ocean is the 2nd largest ocean in the world
Niger river change
Approximately $2.5 billion gas is wasted each year
The Niger River Basin, is constantly facing water shortages. poor water quality and environmental degradation. The degradation of the ecosystem has exposed populations to water shortages and food insecurity
West African manatee (sea cow which can reach a length of 15 feet)
The Niger has 36 families of freshwater fish.
About 250 species (of fish) live in the Niger, and about 20 of the species are found no where on earth but the Niger.
Nile river carries about ten times more sediments than the Niger river.
One main source of income
the river is oil. The country of Niger is a major oil producer.
1.89/2.4 million barrels of petroleum (oil) was spilled into the Niger Delta between 1976-1996
6,817 oil spills have happened between 1976-2001. 3 million barrels of oil, and 70% was not recovered.
Niger is heavily polluted by oil (hydrocarbons)
oil spills are caused by people, are more than half of the spills can not be recovered
Animals can't live after acid rain; is mostly caused by human beings; acid rain is caused by the pollution us humans make. Humans cause pollution which goes up in the air/ clouds causing acid rain.
The Niger River for the most parts looks clear, but its not that clean. It has only 10% as much sediment as the Nile because the unlike the Nile, the Niger River has a flood every year; this starts in September, becomes strongest in November, and finishes by May.
gas is still lighting up into flames in Nigeria’s oil fields, which is polluting the Niger river (Delta) with a huge amount of toxins, which is one of the major causes of acid rain.
climatology believe that, acid rain can only fall within the area of the Niger Delta region because of its large amount of sulphuric (molecular formula H2SO4, strong mineral acid), dioxide and methane in the air, with is the result of gas flaring.
flaming gas creates a thick plumes of smoke across the Niger Delta region, which releases more than 250 (identifiable) toxins, and contributing (giving), more CO2 to the atmosphere than the whole of sub-Saharan Africa combined.

Climate change, induces weird weather patterns in Nigeria that could disrupt/interrupt (year) harvests.

Shell, (largest oil company in the Nigeria region) said

"The World Bank has reported that the environmental and health significance of gas flaring in the Niger Delta was low. Any negative effects of flaring are confined to the immediate vicinity of the flare and will have little or no impact on the health of the local populations."

Local communities and environmental rights groups including activists from the Ogoni people have long been calling for an end to gas flaring as one of the major grievances against oil multinationals such as Shell and Chevron. Thus far, the oil companies have made little progress, blaming a lack of funding on the Nigerian government, which is a partner in the joint-ventures.
Gas flaring has been outlawed in Nigeria since 1984, but it is currently cheaper for oil companies to pay the insignificant fines than to invest in stopping the practice.
Nigeria; for over three decades, many people have lived beside the gas flares. Without having a choice but to use (ex: drink and bathe) water that is contaminated (made/filled) by acid rainfall and other polluted materials.
Because flaring involves carbon dioxide and sulphur outputs, in the longer term the heart and lungs can be affected leading to bronchitis, silicosis, sulphur poisoning of the blood, and cardiac complications, said a Port Harcourt doctor, Nabbs Imegwu.

gas flames up causing pollution, our world and water systems are not as clear that appear to be.
In Nigeria, natural gas burning during oil extraction (action of taking something out, 'using effort or force'). leading to serious health consequences for people living nearby.
Most of the flaring happens in the Niger Delta, people living near the gas flares, complain of respiratory problems like, skin rashes and eye irritations.
Acid rain has been doing damage to the agriculture (farming, soil for the growing of crops. Raising of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.)
“Extreme long-term exposure can predispose one to, or cause, skin cancer,”
catfish, carp, and Nile perch crocodiles and hippopotamus
fish hydroelectric by the dams used to boat on.fish hydroelectric by the dams used to boat on.
the Niger river is threatened because the overfishing, oil pollution and construction of the dam that has damaged the river
one short therm change is the hurricane, hurricanes can occur from may to December but, their more frequently occur form late July to early November
some animals that live in this ocean Manatee, Humpback Whale, Sea Lion, Atlantic Ghost Crab, Catfish, Starfish, Penguins, Green Sea Turtle and Grey Atlantic Seal.
the middle of the ocean cause of pollution - Agricultural (framing) sources, Ports (land) and marinas (boat), Atmospheric deposition of pollutants, waste water and storm water runoff and Marine (boat) debris (broken) and floatables ex: boat
Marine species have large scale that die, which results from nourishment, over enrichment and harmful algal blooms can drastically impact marine food webs and ecological dynamics.
Excessive phytoplankton growth from raised nutrient levels can also reduce water clarity which reduces the light transmission available for the growth of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), which serves as an important habitat for fish's, crabs, and other species. Atmospheric pollutants can have severe ecological impacts on coastal and marine ecosystems
many fishes are killed by acid rain, because they are not able to live in acid rains.
trade waves, winds- converging areas of wind, that moves along the same track as current wind, which create instabilities in the atmosphere that sometimes leads to the formation of hurricanes.
The coast of the Mid-Atlantic region and the ocean itself, is home to high populations and various human activities.
In the southeast, the Atlantic merges (combine's/meets) with the Indian ocean.
Harmful algal blooms (HAB), a single celled organism, that does damage to the ocean through toxins (poison), than the ocean does it to the environment
Brass Oil Export Terminal had a oil spill, that was operated by the Agip (Italian automotive gasoline, ex:fuel gas) off Bayelsa Coastlines, which discharged a yet to be ascertained volume of crude (oil) into the Atlantic ocean.

Dec. 19 1989- Las Palmas, has an explosion in the Iranian supertanker, the Kharg (Island), which caused 19 million gallons of crude oil to spill into Atlantic Ocean, about 400 miles north of Las Palmas, forming a 100-square-mile oil slick.
Connects to the Arctic ocean. Through Denmark strait, Greenland sea, Norwegian sea and Barents sea.

The main river of western Africa is the Niger river. The rising source for the Niger river is, the Guinea highlands, its in the southeastern Guinea.

The Niger rivers source is in very old rocks that have little silt (sediments) this river takes a northeast turn to the Sahara desert before turning southeast where it discharges in the Atlantic Ocean. ( Gulf of Guinea is also the mouth)

joins/connects to the Ethiop and jamieson rivers

The Niger river flows 4,200 kilometers through the following countries Guinea (flows from the Gulf of Guinea), Nigeria, Mali, Niger, and the borders of Benin.

The Niger river goes through the following cities, Timbuktu, Niamey, Bamako, Onitsha, Lokoja and Tembakounda.
water quality
for both aren't so good because they have had a lot oil spills, which is not good for humans, animals or plants. acid rain kills water species, which tells us that the water quality isn't that good, more species means better water quality.
that live in both Atlantic ocean and Niger river; Catfish, e.t.c
acid rain causing many water species to die. oil spills can't fully be cleaned.
hurricanes can occur from may to December but, their more frequently occur in late July to early November
has a flood every year; this starts in September, becomes strongest in November, and finishes by May.
how does the quality of fresh water system affect the quality of salt water systems?
what ever damage happens to the fresh water, it will affect the salt water, because its going to flow in to the salt water. Example waste/ trash is thrown into the fresh water, its going to flow, into the salt water. Because the salt water system has more source, this is because many fresh water systems connected/lead into the salt water system, which causes the salt water to more polluted, worse, not as good water quality.
type of bacteria
chlorophyll- like photosynthesis, it captures (light) energy from the sun, uses that energy for itself (plant)
a lot body cells make up one, makes protective stuff. whole bunch of cells joined in together.
algal blooms - type of poison
a deep, narrow gorge with steep sides.
a narrow valley between hills or mountains, typically with steep rocky walls and a stream running through it.
where your from originally,home know places around it
patches-a piece of cloth or other material that used to strengthen a torn or weak point.
a little salty
covers all -> name kribs is referred all the Pelvicachromis Pulcher.
distinct- noticeable
difference in nature from something else that's a similar type.
-eating both plant and animal origin.
In Guinea the Niger river rises up 9°05- in the north and 10°47- in the west. Eastern side of the Fouta Djallon (is a highland region in the center of Guinea) highlands, only 150 miles/240 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Issuing as the Tembi from a deep ravine 2,800 feet (850 metres) above sea level, it flows due north over the first 100 miles (160 km). It then follows a northeasterly direction, during the course of which it receives its upper tributaries—the Mafou, the Niandan, the Milo, and the Sankarani on the right and the Tinkisso on the left—and enters Mali. Just below Bamako, Mali’s capital, the Sotuba Dam marks the end of the upper river. From there the Niger once dropped more than 1,000 feet (300 metres) in about 40 miles (60 km) into a valley formed by tectonic subsidence; but the rapids in this stretch have been submerged by the waters backed up by the Markala Dam, located some 150 miles (240 km) downstream of the Sotuba Dam near Sansanding. In this stretch, at Koulikoro, the river takes a more east-northeasterly direction, and its bed becomes fairly free from impediments for about 1,000 miles (1,600 km).
Originally described as Pelmatochromis kribensis, they originally comes from the southern Nigeria and to coastal areas of Cameroon, where it occurs in warm [ temp. (24–26 °C) or (75–79 °F) about],


acidic to neutral (pH 5.6–6.2), soft water (12–22 mg L-1 CaCO3), because this fish is a little sky it likes to hide.
and predators
how they hide and advoid from pedators
is adaption
like reasons behind why they do it now
your like cycle thing can be adaption
need to find some stuff to explain
how it is adaption
like why do they eat the food they do now
why do they have different colour
National geographics has anything
or discovery
This fish is found mostly in Nigeria, Cameroon where it has slow moving and shallow waters, (river) but some exist in brackish conditions (joint of salt- fresh water), and found where there is patches of dense vegetation/ heavily vegetated, Forested.
the name we use for the Pelvicachromis species today are referred to as “kribs” so the name now covers the genus.
the fish's coloration depends on the stock it originated from. the area it came from. Both male and females have a light brownish yellowish body color, have two distinct dark brown to black stripes that run from the mouth to the tail.
get along with the followings Black Skirt Tetra, Blood Parrot, Buenos Aires Tetra, Cherry Barb, Chinese Algae Eater, Clown Loach, Congo Tetra, Dwarf Gourami, Dwarf Neon Rainbow, Emperor Tetra, Flying Fox, Glass Fish, GloFish, Gold Severum, Green Severum, Iridescent Shark, Kuhli Loach, King Tiger Pleco, Kissing Gourami, Molly, Otto Catfish, Pearl Gourami, Platy, Queen Arabesque Pleco, Ram Cichlid, Rainbow Shark, Red Tailed Shark, Rosy Barb, Sailfin Molly, Serpae Tetra, Silver Dollar, Sparkling Gourami, Swordtail, Tiger Barb, Tin Foil Barb, Three Spot Gourami, Zebra Danio
sharks, eat the
Pelvicachromis Pulcher.
formed a pair. The female is above the male
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