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design inquiry of learning

talk at Nordic LEAF International Workshop: Methods to support innovation in technology-enhanced learning (TEL) http://nordicleaf.info/

Yishay Mor

on 7 November 2013

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Transcript of design inquiry of learning

Design Inquiry of Learning:
The Answer to
Extreme Poverty, Climate Change, and
Now answer this one: what’s been the single biggest innovation in education?
Don’t worry if you come up blank. You’re supposed to. The question is a gambit used by Anant Agarwal, the computer scientist named this year to head edX, a $60 million MIT-Harvard effort to stream a college education over the Web, free, to anyone who wants one. His point: it’s rare to see major technological advances in how people learn.
The current crisis of the university is intellectual. It is a crisis of purpose, focus and content, rooted in fundamental confusion about all three.

The crisis is all the more visible today, as the pace of social, intellectual and technological change inside and outside the universities is increasingly out of step.
“The most jarring neglect is the education of students to become '
concerned citizens
', in the moral, but even in the more narrow cognitive sense.

Procuring information today has become very easy
. Therefore
the university
, with its big lecture halls, planned as the venue where information would be imparted to students in the sense of filling an empty vessel
is becoming obsolete
The new task of the university and its faculty will be to teach how to collect, select, organize and criticize information thus turning it into knowledge

Elkana, Y. & Klöpper, H. (forthcoming), the university in the 21st century: teaching the new enlightenment at the dawn of the digital age.
A Question of Design
everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into desired ones

(Simon, 1969 / 1996: The Sciences of the Artificial)
When I was young, the word design (imported to French from English) meant no more than what we now call “relooking” in French (a good English word that, unfortunately, does not exist in English). To “relook” means to give a new and better “look” or shape to something – a chair, a knife, a car, a package, a lamp, an interior – which would otherwise remain too clumsy, too severe or too bared if it were left only to its naked function. “Design” in this old and limited meaning was a way to redress the efficient but somewhat boring emphasis of engineers and commercial staff.
If it is true as I have claimed that we have never been modern, and if it is true, as a consequence, that “matters of fact” have now clearly become “matters of concern”, then there is logic to the following observation: the typically modernist divide between materiality on the one hand and design on the other is slowly being dissolved away.
Latour: A Cautious Prometheus? A Few Steps Toward a Philosophy of Design (With Special Attention to Peter Sloterdijk)
Objects with intent
Bad design is.. just letting things happen.

John Hockenberry (ted.com)
Conversation with the materials of a situation

Donald Schon
a mutual learning process between users and designers

Pascal Béguin
The more objects are turned into things – that is, the more matters of facts are turned into matters of concern – the more they are rendered into objects of design through and through.
...to become '
concerned citizens

The new task of the university and its faculty will be to teach how to collect, select, organize and criticize information thus turning it into knowledge.”

Elkana, Y. & Klöpper, H. (forthcoming)
Education: Craft or Design?
Making good stuff.
Making stuff
Turn information into knowledge
Shaping learning
Learning design
Learning Design:
"devising new practices, plans of activity, resources and tools aimed at achieving particular educational aims in a given situation."
Mor, Y. & Craft, B. (2012), 'Learning Design: reflections on a snapshot of the current landscape ', Research in Learning Technology. http://oro.open.ac.uk/33910/
A brief history of learning design
This term, coined more than a decade ago
, refers to research and development dedicated to the quest of equipping teachers with tools and strategies to aid their design of high-quality learning environments.
Its origin stems from
two lines of inquiry
(1) how to represent teaching practice from a technical perspective in the development and delivery of online learning environments
, and
(2) how to represent teaching practice in an appropriate form to enable teachers to share ideas about innovative online pedagogy and think about the process of design
. The underlying premise of learning design is the notion that, if effective teaching and learning practice can be represented in a systematic way, this could then support the process of reuse, which could ultimately lead to improved practice.
Agostinho, S.; Bennett, S.; Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. (2011), 'The future of learning design', Learning, Media and Technology 36 (2) , 97-99
A 'learning design' is defined as the description of the teaching-learning process that takes place in a unit of learning (eg, a course, a lesson or any other designed learning event).
The IMS Learning Design
specification aims to represent the learning design of units of learning in a semantic, formal and machine interpretable way.
Koper, R. (2006), 'Current Research in Learning Design', Educational Technology & Society 9 (1) , 13-22.
A methodology for enabling teachers / designers to make more informed decisions in how they go about designing learning activities and interventions, which is pedagogically informed and makes effective use of appropriate resources and technologies.
Conole, G. (Forthcoming), Designing for learning in an open world. New York, Springer.

Instructional Design
instructional design system of procedures for developing education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion.
Gustafson, K. & Branch, R. (2002), 'What is instructional design', Trends and issues in instructional design and technology , 16--25 .
Educational Design Research
Mor, Yishay (2010). Embedding design patterns in a methodology for a design science of e-Learning. In: Kohls, Christian and Wedekind, Joachim eds. Problems Investigations of E-Learning Patterns: Context Factors, Problems and Solutions. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI, pp. 107–134. http://oro.open.ac.uk/30364/
Design-based research is a methodology for the study of function. Often referred to as design research or design experiments, it is concerned with the design of learning processes, taking account of the involved complexities, multiple levels and contexts of educational settings. The primary aim is to develop domain-specific theories in order to understand the learning process.
Mor, Yishay and Winters, Niall (2007). Design approaches in technology enhanced learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 15(1), pp. 61–75. http://oro.open.ac.uk/30354/
Learning by Design
Kolodner, J. L.; Camp, P. J.; Crismond, D.; Fasse, B.; Gray, J.; Holbrook, J.; Puntambekar, S. & Ryan, M. (2003), 'Problem-based learning meets case-based reasoning in the middle-school science classroom: Putting learning by design™ into practice', Journal of the Learning Sciences 12 (4) , 495--547 .
Teachers as Designers
Voogt, J.; Westbroek, H.; Handelzalts, A.; Walraven, A.; McKenney, S.; Pieters, J. & de Vries, B. (2011), 'Teacher learning in collaborative curriculum design', Teaching and Teacher Education 27 (8) , 1235 - 1244

Kali, Y. & Ronen-Fuhrmann, T. (2011), 'Teaching to design educational technologies', International Journal of Learning Technology 6 (1) , 4-23
Teaching as a Design Science
Laurillard, D. (2012), Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. , Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group .

Local theories
Metic reasoning
Ecology of Resources
Epistemic practice
Pedagogic practice
Learning as confluence
Design practices
Design patterns
Design principles
Designing representations
Representations of design
Design narratives
Learning Designer
Pedagogical Pattern Collector
CC BY NC SA Yishay Mor, the Open University, UK
Firmitas, Utilitas, Venustas
Educational practice as a
A design inquiry of learning

A Planet in Crisis
Universities in Crisis
Concerned Citizens
of the issues
to act

Acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences. May involve synthesizing different types of information.
Planet in Crisis
Global Warming
Financial Crisis

the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system.
A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E.

Tom M. Mitchell, 1997
Making meanings (references, connections, constructs) from text (systems of signs) in context (material, social)

(Lemke; Kress; Selander; others)
Natural science: What is?
Social science: How bad it is?
Design science: How do we make it better?
Value laden
Functional axis of decomposition

(Mor & Winters, 2007)
What is it made of = structure
How it works = function
Perception, understanding = representation
Five advantages of design:
Humble, modest
Attentive to details
Semiotic quality; meaning, interpretation of signs
To design is always to redesign
Ethical dimension
Design is...
Value laden
Change oriented
Functionally organised
Context dependent
Most recent characterizations of design research suggest it is an approach with certain commitments: the production of innovative learning environments, knowledge about how such environments work in the settings for which they are designed, and, hopefully, some more fundamental knowledge about learning or teaching....

Various approaches to education research hold one or another of these commitments, but it is argued the unique attribute of design research is the simultaneous concern for all of them. Yet, this commitment to certain kinds of research outcomes without a clear description of research methods has produced considerable criticism against design research.

Sandoval, W. A. (in press). Conjecture mapping: an approach to systematic educational design research. Journal of the Learning Sciences.
happened to
under some
Plot (sequence of events)
Implicit moral

Bruner: we make meaning out of experiences by arranging them into stories.
Design Narrative
“A design narrative describes the history and evolution of a design over time. [..] Narrative is only one way of making sense of design-based research. [..] To really convey what happened, though, requires a story” (Hoadley, 2002, p 454)

Neither data not analysis; they are the design-researchers’ interpretation in the space between the two.
Mor, Yishay (2011). Design narratives: an intuitive scientific form for capturing design knowledge in education. In: Sixth Chais Conference on Instructional Technologies Research: Learning in the Technological Era, 17 Feb 2011, Raanana, Israel. http://oro.open.ac.uk/30299/
A design pattern:
describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice.
(Alexander, Silverstein, & Ishikawa, 1977, p. x)

Each pattern is a three-part rule, which expresses a relation between a certain context, a problem, and a solution.

The pattern is, in short, at the same time a thing which happens in the world, and the rule which tells us how to create that thing, and when we must create it. It is both a process and a thing; both a description of a thing which is alive, and a description of the process which will generate that thing.
(Alexander, 1979, p. 247)
Project the narrative form into the future
Design Narrative:
Under circumstances "c" I did "a" and the result was "r"
Design Pattern:
Under circumstances C if you do A you may achieve R
Design Scenario:
Under circumstances "c" if I do "a" the result will be "r"
Mor, Yishay (2013). SNaP! Re-using, sharing and communicating designs and design knowledge using scenarios, narratives and patterns. In: Luckin, Rosemary; Puntambekar, Sadhana; Goodyear, Peter; Grabowski, Barbara L.; Underwood, Joshua and Winters, Niall eds. Handbook of Design in Educational Technology. London, UK: Routledge
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